- Reactions of metals Knowledge Test

Candidate Name:
1) What is a hazard?


2) What is a risk?


3) What is a control measure?


4) What do we do with the Independent Variable?


5) What do we do with the Dependent Variable?


6) What do we do with the Control Variables?


7) What do we use to measure the volume of a liquid?


8) What do we used to measure the temperature of an object?


9) How do we identify categoric IV data and what type of graph do we draw?


10) How do we identify continuous IV data and what type of graph do we draw?


11) How many processes are there common to living things?


12) What are these seven life processes?


13) What are all living things made of?


14) What are the levels of organisation in an organism?


15) What are biological cells?


16) What are tissues made up of?


17) What are Organs made up of?


18) What are Organ Systems made up of?


19) What are organisms made up of?


20) What are organelles?


21) What is the function of the cell wall?


22) What is the function of the cell membrane?


23) What is the function of the cytoplasm?


24) What is the function of the nucleus?


25) What is the function of the permanent vacuole?


26) What is the function of the chloroplasts?


27) What is the function of the mitochondria?


28) What is the function of the ribosome?


29) Compare an animal and plant cells.


30) How are you able to tell the difference between an animal and plant cell?


31) Give 3 examples of specialised plant or animal cells. How are they different to other cells and how does this help the cells complete their specialist function?


32) What is the function of a root hair cell and how is the cell specialised to do this?


33) What adaptations do red blood cells have in order to efficiently carry oxygen around the body?


34) What special adaptation do Elodea have? Why do they have this?


35) Why do ciliated cells have hairs?


36) Why, when focussing a microscope, is it important to have the stage close to the objective lens at the start and wind the stage down as you focus?


37) How should biological drawings be made?


38) What organelles can be seen under a light microscope?


39) What does unicellular mean?


40) What does multicellular mean?


41) Name 3 types of unicellular life.


42) What are the parts of a bacterial cell?


43) What organelles do yeast cells have?


44) What are pseudopodia?


45) Can you see unicellular or multicellular organisms with the naked eye?


46) How are the bones arranged in your head, torso, arms and legs?


47) What are the functions of a skeleton?


48) What does the bone marrow do?


49) How is the movement different in a hinge, pivot, ball and socket and fixed joint?


50) Give an example of a hinge, pivot, ball and socket and fixed joint.


51) Give examples of antagonistic muscles in the arms and legs.


52) How are the bones at a joint held together?


53) What is the difference between a ligament and a tendon?


54) What do muscles do to apply a force and is it a pulling or pushing force?


55) When one muscle in an antagonistic pair is contracted, what will the other muscle do?


56) What are the properties of solids?


57) What are the properties of liquids?


58) What are the properties of gases?


59) What is a fluid?


60) What is anything with mass made of?


61) How are the particles arranged in solids?


62) How are the particles arranged in liquids?


63) How are the particles arranged in gases?


64) What property do substances which have particles that are able to move relative to each other have?


65) What is density?


66) How can we use the a eureka can to measure the volume of an object?


67) How does the density change between solid, liquid and gas?


68) What happens when a solid is heated but does not yet melt?


69) What happens to particles when they are heated?


70) What happens to the force of collision of particles when heated?


71) At what temperature would particles ever be stationary?


72) What common chemical is an anomaly and actually less dense as a solid?


73) What are the processes of a solid turning into a liquid and a liquid turning into a gas called? What are the processes called changing from a gas to a liquid?


74) What is the process of a solid turning into a gas called?


75) Do uncharged particles attract or repel each other?


76) How do the forces of attraction and collision determine the state of matter?


77) Why are liquids able to pour and take the shape of their containers?


78) What effect does energy have on the forces of attraction during melting?


79) How does the mass of water change as an ice cube melts?


80) What does the term 'conservation of mass' mean?


81) Why does the mass change during evaporation?


82) How can we represent the changes of state in diagram form?


83) What is internal energy?


84) What type of energy do particles gain when they are heated?


85) How does the internal energy of a material change as state changes?


86) Why does the temperature of water not increase during melting and evaporation?


87) What is a force?


88) What do we use force arrows for? How do we draw them?


89) What do we measure forces in? What symbol can we use?


90) What is one Newton equivalent to?


91) What happens if forces are combined?


92) How do we calculate whether forces are balanced or unbalanced? How can we tell if a force is negative? What is the 'resultant force'?


93) What is momentum? Pick the most correct answer.


94) How can we change momentum?


95) Why do we need unbalanced forces?


96) What is acceleration dependent on?


97) How can we cause friction?


98) What does the amount of friction depend on?


99) In what direction does friction always act in relation to motion?


100) In what direction does a reaction force work and what size is this force?


101) What is a the name of the force a solid object applies back, when acted upon by another force?


102) What is deformation?


103) How is the force of tension created?


104) When will a spring stop deforming?


105) What are the 3 non-contact forces?


106) How else, other than rubbing two objects together, can friction be produced? What is this also known as?


107) Why do cars have a top speed?


108) What is the name of the force produced by an engine or motor?


109) Energy Cells Particles Forces


110) What part of the plant is involved in sexual reproduction?


111) What is the male part of the flower called?


112) How can an insect pollinator transfer pollen from one flower to another?


113) What happens to cause fertilisation in a flower?


114) What is the role of a pollen cell?


115) How are pollen cells adapted - Give at least 2 ways.


116) Why does pollen have a tough outer coating? Why do some pollens have spikes or hooks on them?


117) What different methods can be used to transfer pollen?


118) Why is it important for plants to spread seeds far?


119) What are the different ways seeds can be dispersed?


120) What does a food chain show?


121) What do food chains start with?


122) How do plants get energy?


123) What is a consumer?


124) What is the second level in a food chain called?


125) What is an animal that hunts another animal called?


126) How is a food web difference to a food chain?


127) What is it called when changes in a population of one species affect the population of other species?


128) How is a pyramid or number arranged?


129) What is bioaccumulation and what levels of the food chain will it affect the most?


130) Why are insect pollinators important to humans?


131) If a field only grows the crop and no other plants, why might this be bad for insects?


132) Why should we look after insect pollinators?


133) What are there more of, chemicals or elements?


134) What experiments did John Dalton carry out?


135) What are chemicals that can not be split into other chemicals called?


136) What is an element made of?


137) What determines the element?


138) What are chemicals called that are made of more than one element chemically bonded together?


139) What is a compound made up of?


140) What did Dalton find out when he split compounds?


141) How many elements are there and where can we find this list?


142) What is an atom?


143) What is a molecule?


144) What is an element?


145) What is a compound?


146) What is a mixture?


147) How do we represent chemicals universally?


148) What rules apply to all chemical symbols?


149) What does the chemical formulae of a compound show?


150) How can you tell a compound from the formula of it?


151) How can you tell an element from the formula of it?


152) How can we identify the number of elements in a compound?


153) Identify the number of element and atoms in the following formulae: CO Co NaOH MgO MgSO4 CaCO3 CaCl What are the elements in the above formulae?


154) How can you represent a mixture in writing?


155) What is the conservation of mass?


156) What happens to the mass of particles in a chemical reaction?


157) What is a chemical reaction?


158) What is Brownian motion?


159) Why do we need energy?


160) What are the 8 forms of energy?


161) What is the difference between a store of energy and a flow of energy?


162) What are the stores of energy? What are the flows of energy?


163) How is energy transferred? Name 4 examples.


164) Does energy always stay in the same form? Explain your answer.


165) What is meant by 'conservation of energy'?


166) Why do we use energy transfer diagrams? Draw an energy transfer diagram for the energy transfers in a fan heater.


167) Which direction(s) does energy flow?


168) How is energy dispersed?


169) How does anything happen in terms of energy?


170) What sorts of processes involve energy transfers? Give 3 examples.


171) What is meant by a more efficient device?


172) What do we measure the amount of energy transferred in?


173) Energy Transfer Joule Fuel


174) Why do hot objects have more energy than cooler ones? How is this energy transferred?


175) In which direction does heat energy flow?


176) When does heat energy stop flowing?


177) What do we call energy transfer through contact?


178) When does conduction occur?


179) Why does energy transfer in conduction?


180) How, other than conduction and convection, can heat energy transfer?


181) What is radiation described as?


182) What is convection? What substances does it occur in?


183) To what point do objects cool down to?


184) How do insulators work?


185) What is a better insulator - air or plastic?


186) Why is air a better insulator than plastic?


187) What are the best insulators?


188) Why are vacuums the best insulators?


189) Why do humans wear clothes to keep warm?


190) What is photosynthesis?


191) Where does photosynthesis take place?


192) What are the products of photosynthesis?


193) Where are plants found in the food chain?


194) How do plants get their energy?


195) What does 'photo' mean?


196) What does 'synthesis' mean?


197) What happens to particles in synthesis?


198) What happens to the particles in decomposition?


199) What types of cells does the most amount of photosynthesis happen?


200) Where in a plant cell does photosynthesis take place?


201) What is the word equation for photosynthesis?


202) What are the reactants of photosynthesi


203) Where does the plant get carbon dioxide from?


204) Where does water come from for the plant and where does it enter the plant?


205) How does carbon dioxide get absorbed into the plant?


206) What chemicals are the products of photosynthesis?


207) What happens to the glucose in a plant?


208) Where does the oxygen made in a plant leave from?


209) What is glucose converted into when stored in a plant?


210) What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?


211) What is the symbol equation for photosynthesis?


212) What happens to atoms in chemical reactions?


213) What happens to the numbers of each atom in a chemical reaction?


214) What makes photosynthesis an endothermic reaction?


215) What is the symbol equation for respiration?


216) What makes respiration an exothermic reaction?


217) How are leaves shaped to help photosynthesis?


218) How are palisade cells adapted to perform photosynthesis?


219) What is glucose converted into when stored in a plant?


220) What is used to test for starch and what is the colour change?


221) What is the role of the stomata in the plant?


222) what are the holes in the bottom of a leaf called?


223) How do plants gain water?


224) How do plants gain the mineral nutrients they need?


225) Why do root hair cells have no chloroplasts?


226) Why do root hair cells have a large surface area?


227) Where do stomata occur on the leaf?


228) What is a 'pure substance'?


229) What is a trace substance?


230) How can we identify a pure substance from an impure?


231) How can we separate salt from sand?


232) What is filtration?


233) What is a residue?


234) What is a filtrate?


235) What allows us to separate substances through evaporation?


236) What is distillation?


237) How does distillation work?


238) What is chromatography?


239) Why would we use chromatography to identify a type of sweet?


240) What does soluble mean?


241) What does insoluble mean?


242) What is a solution?


243) What is the solid that dissolves in a liquid called?


244) What is the liquid a solid dissolves into called?


245) What happens to the solute particles when they dissolve?


246) How do the particles behave once they have dissolved?


247) What does it mean when a solution is saturated?


248) In terms of particles, why does a solution become saturated?


249) Why does increasing the temperature increase the amount of solute that can dissolve?


250) What is solubility?


251) What is concentration?


252) What is diffusion?


253) What happens to the particles in a fluid?


254) Why do particles move from an area where there are more to where ther


255) What is speed? What happens if we travel faster?


256) What is the equation we use to calculate speed?


257) What does the speed calculation tell you about your journey?


258) What do we call the speed at a given moment in time?


259) What makes roads safer?


260) What is the relationship between distance, speed and time?


261) What are the units for distance and time?


262) What unit do we measure speed in?


263) How do you calculate the average speed of an object?


264) How can you plan a practical to investigate the factors that affect a trolley's speed?


265) How do we represent journeys without writing a story?


266) On a distance-time graph: What does a rising straight line from left to right indicate? What does a 'horizontal line from left to right indicate?


267) What is the difference in speed between a car travelling a 30 m/s and a lorry travelling at 20 m/s? How did you work this out? What does this difference in speed show?


268) What is meant by 'relative motion'?


269) How much further does the car get away from the lorry in one second? What if the car starts behind the lorry?


270) At what speed would they collide at if they were travelling towards each other? How did you work this out?


271) What is velocity? What is negative velocity?


272) If the lorry is travelling at 20 m/s and a car at -30 m/s what speed do they collide at? How did you work this out?


273) What is weight?


274) What is the difference between weight and gravity?


275) How is the weight of an object increased?


276) How is the weight of an object increased?


277) What is gravitational pull also measured as?


278) What is the calculation for weight?


279) What sort of force is produced by gravity?


280) How are different seasons caused?


281) What are the five food groups of a human diet?


282) What type of carbohydrate is used by the body for slow release energy?


283) What type of carbohydrate is used by the body for quick release energy?


284) What are Lipids used for?


285) What does the body use Protein for?


286) Which food group is needed in small quantities for a healthy body?


287) What is Dietary Fibre needed for?


288) What is the definition for a 'Balanced Diet'?


289) Which food type(s) are required in the greatest proportion


290) What is the definition of a food group?


291) What is the definition of a food type?


292) Which food type provides vitamins, minerals and fibre?


293) Which 4 types of food provide slow release energy (starch)?


294) Which food type provides vitamins, minerals and lipids?


295) What food group do meat, fish, eggs and beans provide?


296) What type of carbohydrate does food high in energy contain?


297) What type of energy is stored in food?


298) What is food energy measured in (in catering)?


299) What is food energy measured in (in science)?


300) How are the energy requirements of a healthy diet calculated?


301) What do we require energy for?


302) What is the term for the energy required just to stay alive?


303) What is the amount of energy you used during the day called?


304) What does BMR depend on?


305) What does AMR depend on?


306) How do you work out someones total energy requirements?


307) What happens if someone consumes more energy than they use?


308) What happens if someone consumes less energy than they use?


309) What is the medical term for someone who is excessively fat?


310) What health problems does obesity cause?


311) When does starvation occur?


312) What can happen when you do not consume enough vitamins or minerals?


313) Which organ system is involved in digestion?


314) Which organs are part of the digestive system?


315) How is food broken down in the mouth?


316) What is the result of of having smaller pieces of food?


317) How does a larger surface area affect digestion?


318) How is food broken down in the stomach?


319) Where are the nutrients from absorbed?


320) How are nutrients absorbed in the small intestine?


321) What is the role of the villi? Explain your answer.


322) Compare the concentrations of nutrients in the small intestine to the blood surround it.


323) Why is there a great concentration gradient?


324) Why is the small intestine so long?


325) What happens to the excess water?


326) What is faeces?


327) What are enzymes and where are they produced?


328) Which enzyme breaks down carbohydrates?


329) Which food does protease break down?


330) Where is lipase used?


331) Which other enzymes are found in the small intestines?


332) How do the nutrients reach the blood stream?


333) How is the lining of the small intestines adapted?


334) What is absorbed through the lining of the large intestines?


335) What happens to the undigested food?


336) What role does bacteria play in the human digestive system?


337) What is a physical change?


338) What happens to the particles in a physical change?


339) When do chemical changes occur?


340) What happens to the atoms in a chemical reaction?


341) What happens to atoms in chemical reactions?


342) What are reactants?


343) What are products?


344) What is the difference between a chemical and a physical change?


345) What happens to atoms in chemical reactions


346) What 4 things tell us a chemical reaction has occurred?


347) How do we know that there is conservation of mass in a chemical reaction?


348) What is combustion?


349) What are the products and reactants in combustion?


350) What is an oxidation reaction?


351) What type of chemical reaction is rusting?


352) What reaction causes metals to tarnish?


353) What happens in an exothermic reaction?


354) What happens in an endothermic reaction?


355) What happens in a thermal decomposition?


356) What happens in a displacement reaction?


357) What is the name of a reaction between an acid and an alkali?


358) What do we use the pH scale for?


359) What is a catalyst and what do they do in a reaction?


360) What travels from one place to another in a wave?


361) What is the maximum displacement of a wave called?


362) How is the wavelength of a water wave measured?


363) What type of wave is a water wave?


364) What is reflection?


365) What is refraction?


366) What is diffraction?


367) What is wave superposition?


368) How is sound produced?


369) What is the frequency of a wave?


370) What unit is frequency measured in?


371) What is the relationship between frequency and the sound produced?


372) What does a high frequency signal look like on an oscilloscope, compared to a low frequency signal?


373) What does a high amplitude signal look like on an oscilloscope, compared to a low amplitude signal?


374) What is the relationship between energy and amplitude?


375) What is the auditory range of humans?


376) What is ultrasound?


377) What can ultrasound be used for and why?


378) What type of wave is a sound wave?


379) Why does sound need a medium to travel?


380) In which of state of matter (solid, liquid, gas) does sound sound travel fastest?


381) Why does the sound travel faster?


382) What happens when sound waves collide with an object such as an ear drum?


383) What is an echo?


384) What is the equation to calculate speed?


385) What is the function of the Testes?


386) What is the function of the Scrotum?


387) What is the function of the Glands?


388) What is the function of the Sperm duct?


389) What is the function of the Penis?


390) What is the function of the Urethra?


391) What is the function of the Ovary?


392) What is the function of the Oviducts?


393) What is the function of the Uterus?


394) What is the function of the Cervix?


395) What is the function of the Vagina?


396) What happens to the lining of the Uterus during the Menstrual cycle?


397) How is a sperm cell structure linked to is function?


398) How is a egg cell structure linked to is function?


399) What happens during fertilisation?


400) How does a gamete compare from a 'normal cell'?


401) Where must fertilisation occur for a pregnancy to be possible?


402) What is the ball of cells called when a zygote divides to copy itself?


403) What happens to the embryo for a women to become pregnant?


404) What does an embryo develop into?


405) What does the placenta do?


406) What is the gestation period?


407) What happens during birth?


408) In order of size, smallest first, what are the 'units' of genetic information?


409) What is the shape of the DNA Molecule?


410) What gives the code to create proteins?


411) Compare genes and chromosomes.


412) What role did Pauling and Chargaff, have in the developing the DNA model?


413) What role did Watson and Crick have in the developing the DNA model?


414) What role did Franklin and Wilkins have in the developing the DNA model?


415) What factors are needed for scientific understanding to progress?


416) What is heredity?


417) What is a species?


418) What happen if closely related species reproduce?


419) What is biodiversity?


420) Why is maintaining biodiversity important?


421) What are genes banks for?


422) How can variation lead to natural selection?


423) Despite belonging to the same species, individuals often are different. What is this difference called and what two forms can it grouped into?


424) What is the definition of a species?


425) What is continuous variation?


426) What is discontinuous variation?


427) How would a graph of discontinuous variation and continuous variation be different?


428) How can a change in the environment cause evolution and even possibly extinction?


429) Can earthquakes and volcanoes happen anywhere on the Earth?


430) What are tectonic plates?


431) Which is the thinnest layer out of the crust, mantle, outer core and inner core?


432) What 3 forms of evidence did Alfred Wegener base his theory of crustal movement on?


433) What was Alfred Wegener's explanation for the forms of evidence?


434) Why was Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift not generally accepted?


435) What moves the tectonic plates?


436) Where does the energy come from to cause the movement of the tectonic plates?


437) What creates the heat in the core?


438) What is the energy transform occurring in the core?


439) How fast do the plates move on average?


440) What do the sudden movements of the tectonic plates cause?


441) Starting at the center, what are the layers that make up the Earth?


442) What are the relative sizes of the core and mantle in how much of the diameter of the Earth they take up?


443) How are P and S waves used to discover what the inner Earth is like?


444) What is the Earth mainly composed of?


445) What is the Earth's core mainly composed of?


446) What is the Earth's crust mainly made up of?


447) What type of chemical is the air?


448) What is the atmosphere composed of?


449) What is the test for oxygen gas?


450) What is the test for carbon dioxide?


451) What is the test for hydrogen gas?


452) What process maintains the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?


453) Why is photosynthesis important?


454) Why is oxygen important in the atmosphere?


455) Which gas is used as a sign of life on other planets?


456) What causes a spring to deform?


457) What happens to an object when it is deformed elastically?


458) What energy transfers occur when an object is deformed elastically?


459) What happens to the elastic potential energy of a spring as it returns to its original shape?


460) What happens to an object when it is deformed plastically?


461) What energy transfers occur when an object is plastically deformed and where is the energy?


462) What is happening to a spring during the linear region of a force-extension graph? At what point does the spring stop obeying Hooke's law?


463) What is the role of a machine in terms of forces?


464) What is the advantage and disadvantage of a simple machine?


465) Give 3 examples of simple machines.


466) What is work done? What is work done also known as? What unit do we use for work done?


467) What is the relationship between energy transferred in and work done?


468) What is a moment?


469) What two factors is the size of a moment proportional to?


470) What unit do we use for moments?


471) What is gas pressure caused by?


472) What is atmospheric pressure caused by?


473) What effect does increase of height have on atmospheric pressure? Explain this.


474) What is the equation for calculating pressure?


475) What is pressure in fluids caused by?


476) What is the magnitude of the pressure in liquids equal to?


477) What happens to the pressure in liquids when depth is increased?


478) What is the relationship between the upthrust force and the weight of the water?


479) To what point will an object sink to?


480) What causes an object to sink?


481) What causes an object to float?


482) What is the density of water equal to?


483) What effect do objects that are less dense than water have on the water?


484) What effect do objects that are more dense than water have on water?


485) What method is used to heat most homes? How do urban homes get this resource? How do rural homes get this resource?


486) What is a non-renewable energy source? Give some examples.


487) What is the main difference between homes powered by gas and homes powered by oil?


488) What are most of the appliances in the home powered by?


489) Where is electricity generated?


490) What is a renewable energy source? Give some examples.


491) How do most thermal power stations work?


492) How do most non-thermal power stations work?


493) What energy transfers occur in solar power stations?


494) What sort of appliances generally use the most energy?


495) What does the amount of energy transferred depend on?


496) What is the equation for calculating energy?


497) How many Joules are there in a kilojoule?


498) What is a kilowatt hour? What units are used?


499) How is the amount of energy used by a customer measured?


500) What is the equation for calculating the cost of electricity?


501) What is the rough cost of an electrical unit?


502) Why do cells require energy?


503) How do cells obtain energy?


504) Where in a cell does most respiration happen in a cell?


505) What is respiration in terms of particles?


506) In terms of energy, what type of reaction is respiration?


507) What do cells need for respiration?


508) What is the most common type of respiration in plants and animals?


509) What is the word equation for aerobic respiration?


510) Why do cells switch the type of respiration they are doing?


511) What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration?


512) Why do most plants and animals do aerobic respiration, rather than anaerobic?


513) What effect does Lactic acid have?


514) How do we get rid of Lactic acid?


515) Describe what particles do in a fluid.


516) What is diffusion?


517) What is concentration?


518) How do the random movement of particles result in the movement from a higher concentration to a lower concentration?


519) Under what conditions does diffusion happen faster?


520) Why does glucose diffuse into muscle cells from the blood?


521) Why does oxygen diffuse into muscle cells from the blood?


522) Why does carbon dioxide diffuse out of muscle cells into the blood?


523) Why does water diffuse out of muscle cells into the blood?


524) How can diffusion occur in and out of cells.


525) What does partially-permeable mean?


526) Why is the cell membrane referred to as partially-permeable?


527) What are the main parts of the human circulatory?


528) Which direction do the arteries move the blood?


529) Which direction do the veins move the blood?


530) What blood vessel helps carry out exchange between the blood and cells?


531) What is the part of the blood made of mainly water and dissolved chemicals called?


532) What gases are dissolved in the plasma?


533) What part of the blood carries most of the oxygen?


534) What gas diffuses from the lungs into the blood?


535) What gas diffuses out of the blood into the lungs?


536) which organ does glucose enter the blood from?


537) Which organ removes excess water from the blood?


538) What organ is responsible for gas exchange in humans?


539) How does the air enter the lungs?


540) What does the wind pipe split into when it reaches the lungs?


541) What are the smaller tubes the bronchi split off into called?


542) What are the structures at the ends of bronchioles called?


543) What are the lungs adapted to do for gas exchange?


544) What adaptation does the alveoli give to help gas exchange?


545) How does a large surface area help gas exchange?


546) What surrounds the alveoli?


547) Why does a good blood supply improve the rate of gas exchange?


548) How thick are the alveoli?


549) Why does the thin alveoli wall help gas exchange?


550) What part of the human body is the thorax?


551) What is the function of the ribs?


552) What parts of the body are needed to ventilate the lungs in breathing?


553) What happens to increase the volume of the lungs?


554) How does the increase in lung volume cause breathing in?


555) What happens to decrease the volume of the lungs?


556) How does the decrease in lung volume cause breathing out?


557) How does air pressure make air particles move?


558) How could you measure lung volume?


559) What change to the amount of different gases needed and expelled when exercising?


560) What changes with the heart when oxygen is needed more quickly?


561) What changes with the breathing when oxygen is needed more quickly?


562) What does asthma do to the breathing tubes?


563) How does asthma affect breathing?


564) Name the three main chemicals in tobacco smoke that can reduce the oxygen pumped around the body?


565) What does tar do to the lungs?


566) How does tar affect how well the body can get oxygen?


567) How is the reactivity of carbon monoxide compared to oxygen?


568) How does carbon monoxide affect how well the body can get oxygen?


569) How does nicotine affect how well the body can get oxygen?


570) What are the different physical and chemical properties that can vary?


571) How did Mendeleev decide where to put things in the periodic table?


572) How does the reactivity change as you go down Group one?


573) How does the reactivity of group 7 elements change as you ascend the group?


574) How reactive are group zero elements?


575) How does the placement of elements on the periodic table affect its properties?


576) What are the rows in the periodic table called?


577) What are the columns in the periodic table called?


578) Where can metals be found in the periodic table?


579) Where can non-metals be found in the periodic table?


580) What is the most abundant type of element on the periodic table?


581) What are the properties of metals?


582) What are the properties of non-metals?


583) What are the products when you react an acid with a metal?


584) What are the products when you react an acid with an alkali?


585) What is formed when metal oxides dissolve?


586) What is formed when non-metal oxides dissolve?


587) How can we identify types of oxides?


588) Which part of the magnet is the strongest?


589) What are the ends of a magnet called?


590) How do the poles of a magnet interact?


591) How can magnets be made by using another magnet?


592) Why do magnetic materials become magnetic?


593) What is a magnetic domain?


594) How are magnetic domains created?


595) What is a magnetic field?


596) What does the shape of a magnetic field depend on?


597) How do we represent magnetic fields in drawings?


598) Where are the magnetic fields usually the strongest?


599) How can we plot magnetic field lines?


600) Which direction do magnetic field lines flow?


601) What shape is the Earth's magnetic field?


602) What is the Earth's magnetic field caused by?


603) How do compasses work?


604) How do magnetic materials affect the location of magnetic field lines?


605) How do objects become charged?


606) What do objects with the same charge do to each other?


607) What do objects with opposite charges do to each other?


608) What causes a negative charge?


609) What forces occur between charged objects?


610) Why is it that electrons can be transferred by protons can't?


611) What is an electric field?


612) How do we represent electrical fields?


613) When Iron Sulfide mixes with Lead Nitrate, what happens?


614) What happens in a displacement reaction?


615) What is definition of a rate?


616) What gas is produced when a metal reacts with an acid?


617) What do all acids contain?


618) What is the reactivity series?


619) Other than a gas, what is produced when an acid reacts with a metal?


620) Draw particle diagrams for a metal reacting with an acid.


621) Write a word equation for metals reacting with acid.


622) Write a symbol equation for metals reacting with acid.


623) Which two non-metal elements are often added to the reactivity series?


624) Why don't we find pure metals that are more reactive than hydrogen in the ground?


625) What do we call rocks that have significant amounts of metal compounds in?


626) What needs to be done to get useable metals?


627) What type of furnace is used to produce iron?


628) What is added to to the furnace to remove the oxygen from the ore?


629) What determines if carbon can displace the metal?


630) Draw a labelled diagram to show how to collect gas over water.


631) What is a better method to measure the amount of gas produced by a reaction?


632) How are ceramic objects made?


633) Give two examples of a ceramic material.


634) Ceramic materials are hard,what does this mean?


635) How are ceramics used to be at their strongest?


636) Ceramics are brittle. What does this mean?


637) How are metals used to be at their strongest?


638) Metals are Sonorous. What does this mean?


639) Metals are malleable. What does this mean?


640) Metals are ductile. What does this mean?


641) Metals are lustrous. What does this mean?


642) Metals are good conductor. What does this mean?


643) What are the general properties of ceramics?


644) What is the chemistry name for plastics?


645) What determines how a polymer is used?


646) Name four properties of some polymers.


647) What is a composite material?


648) Why are composites used?


649) Explain why reinforced concrete used for bridges?


650) What are glass Reinforced Plastics?


651) How are particles in a solid arranged?


652) Do all solids have the particles arranged in the same pattern?


653) Why are metals malleable and ductile?


654) What happens to the metals layers when a force is applied?


655) Why are metals known as tough?


656) Why are ceramics brittle?


657) Why are ceramics hard and brittle?


658) Why are tetrahedrals strong shapes?


659) What does a strong structure mean?


660) How are particels in a polymer arranged?


661) What are the bonds in a polymer like?


662) What does the length of a polymer chain affect?


663) What are the applications of ceramics, polymers and composites?


664) What is the maximum displacement of a wave called?


665) How is the wavelength of a wave measured?


666) What do waves usually transfer?


667) Why are water waves and light waves described as 'transverse'?


668) What is refraction?


669) Why can light travel through a vacuum?


670) What is another name for light?


671) What happens when all the colours of light mix?


672) Why are the colours of white light separated in a rainbow?


673) Why do different colours of light bend different amounts?


674) How does the frequency of light affect how much is it bent by a prism?


675) How do light waves travel if not by particles?


676) How does frequency affect the energy of a wave?


677) How do the frequencies of red visible light and violet visible light compare?


678) What is the speed of light in a vacuum?


679) How do the energies of red visible light and violet visible light compare?


680) What happens when colours of paint are mixed?


681) What three things can happen to a wave when it encounters a material?


682) How do light waves travel?


683) What is the law of reflection off a plane surface?


684) What is the symbol of a mirror for ray diagrams?


685) What is it called when a wave hits a flat, shiny surface and bounces back?


686) How does specular reflection allow an image to be formed?


687) When does diffuse scattering occur?


688) Why does a red object look red in white light?


689) How can you split white light?


690) What are the components of the eye?


691) How does light enter the eye?


692) Why does the pupil change size?


693) How is a focused (clear) and bright image produced by the eye?


694) Why are the cornea and lens convex in shape?


695) What does a lens do to the image of an object?


696) How do they specialised cells detect changes in light energy in the eye?


697) How does the eye inform the brain what you see?


698) What does a ray model of a pinhole camera look like?


699) With photosensitive paper where does light transfer from and to?


700) What things can absorbed light energy do in a polaroid camera lead to?


701) What can absorbed light energy lead to in the eye?


702) How does a pinhole camera create a faint image that is in focus?


703) What can happen to a charged surface when light energy is absorbed?


704) Why does having three small holes in a pinhole give three faint images that are in focus?


705) Where is the light reflected in the eye?


706) How can a picture be made using a CCD?


707) How does a bigger hole effect the image produced?


708) How can drugs be classified using the law?


709) What classifications of drugs are there?


710) How can drugs be classified based on characteristics?


711) What effect do depressants have on brain activity?


712) What effect do hallucinogens have on humans?


713) How do painkillers manage pain?


714) How do performance enhancing drugs aid athletes?


715) What effect do stimulants have on the brain?


716) Are all rocks the same age?


717) Where are the oldest rocks found?


718) Where are the youngest rocks on the earth generally found?


719) Why has the amount of rock material on the earth remained fairly constant since its formation?


720) What materials are new rocks made from?


721) What type of rocks are formed when molten rock freezes?


722) Describe the structure of particles in an igneous rock


723) Solids are made up of crystals. What are crystals?


724) How does the rate at which something freezes affect the size of the crystals it contains?


725) Why are the crystals formed larger when an object freezes more slowly?


726) Why are the crystals formed smaller when an object freezes quickly?


727) What size crystals are formed when solids freeze slowly?


728) What is the impact on the structure of an igneous rock when it forms slowly under the ground?


729) What is the impact on the structure of an igneous rock when it forms above the ground or in water, resulting in tit cooling rapidly?


730) Does the size of crystals affect the properties of a rock?


731) What is weathering?


732) Over time, what happens to rocks as they are weathered?


733) What is chemical weathering?


734) What is physical weathering?


735) How are sedimentary rocks formed?


736) What may occur when organisms fall into the sediment of a forming rock?


737) What causes the formation of a metamorphic rock?


738) Where are the resources we rely upon extracted from?


739) Why is coal a better source of energy than wood?


740) How is crude oil formed?


741) How is coal formed?


742) What uses do we have for crude oil?


743) How are most metals obtained from the Earth's crust?


744) What is a ceramic material?


745) What is it important that we recycle?


746) What are the impacts on the Earth of increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere?


747) The emissions of which gases result in the formation of acid rain?


748) How can you test for the presence of carbon dioxide gas?


749) Are the Earth's resources infinite?


750) What is potential difference and what is it measured in?


751) What is electric current?


752) What do we use to measure potential difference and how must we do it?


753) What charged particles are able to move in a metal?


754) How can we describe current and how do we measure it?


755) What is the store of energy in potential difference caused by?


756) What happens to current when branches in a circuit meet and why?


757) What happens to the potential difference in a series circuit?


758) What happens if we don't match the potential difference ratings of the battery to the bulb in a circuit?


759) What are the rules for representing circuits in diagram form?


760) Which components symbols are important to know?


761) How are series circuits described?


762) How are parallel circuits described?


763) Why does resistance vary between conducting and insulating components?


764) What is resistance and what is it measured in?


765) What is resistance the ratio of?


766) What equation is used to calculate resistance?


767) How can the equation for resistance be rearranged to find potential difference or current?


768) What are electromagnets made of?


769) What are the main uses of electromagnets?


770) What factors can affect the strength of an electromagnet?


771) ES - What is the motor effect?


772) ES - How is the motor effect used to create a speaker?


773) What is the basic structure of plant and animal (eukaryotic) cells?


774) What is the structure of a bacterial cell?


775) What is the order of magnitude of an ant, DNA, red blood cell, carbon atom and bacterial cell?


776) Are bacterial (prokaryotic) cells bigger or smaller than eukaryotic cells?


777) What is unique about the DNA in a bacterial cell?


778) What sub-celluar structures are found in most animal cells?


779) What additional sub-celluar structures do plant cells often have?


780) What are plant and algal cell walls made of to strengthen the cell?


781) How are each of the following sub-ceullular structures related to their functions: nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, mitochondria, ribosomes, and plasmids (bacterial cells)?


782) What is the estimated size of an ant, the diameter of a hair, the length of a leaf cell, the size of a red blood cell, the length of bacterium, the size of a virus, the diameter of DNA and the size of a carbon atom.


783) What are the names of specialised cells in animals?


784) How are nerve cells specialised for their function?


785) How are muscle cells specialised for their function?


786) How are sperm cells specialised for their function?


787) What are the names of specialised cells in plants?


788) How are root hair cells specialised for their function?


789) How are xylem cells specialised for their function?


790) How are Phloem cells specialised for their function?


791) How has microscopy developedi over time?


792) What impact has the development of the electron microscope had on our knowledge of cells?


793) How has electron microscopy been able to increase our understanding of sub-cellular structures?


794) Why is an electron microscope better than a light microscope?


795) How is the magnification equation re-arranged to calculate real size and image size?


796) What is the relationship between the prefixes centi, milli, micro and nano?


797) How do you represent the size of a cell measuring 0.006cm using standard form?


798) Required Practical 1 - Microscopy (AT Skills 1,7)


799) (Biology only) Required Practical 2 - Microbiology (Biology only) (AT Skills 1,3,4,8)


800) (Biology only) How do bacteria divide?


801) (Biology only) When investigating the growth of bacteria, in what two ways can they be grown?


802) (Biology only) What is special about the culture of organisms required when investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics?


803) (Biology only) How is an uncontaminated culture of microgransims prepared?


804) (Biology only) Why are petri dishes and culture media sterilised before use?


805) (Biology only) Why are inoculating loops, used to transfer microorganisms to media, passed through a flame?


806) (Biology only) Why should the lid of the Petri dish should be secured with adhesive tape and stored upside down?


807) (Biology only) Why should cultures be incubated at 25oC in school laboratories?


808) (Biology only) How would the cross-sectional areas of colonies or clear areas around colonies be calculated? How can this be used to calculate the cross-sectional area for a radius of 0.25 mm?


809) (Biology only) How is the number of bacteria in a population calculated after a certain time if given the mean division time?


810) (Biology only) What is the population of bacteria, which have a mean division time of 5-minutes, after 45-minutes if starting with just 5 bacteria? How would this answer be shown using standard form?


811) What is contained in the cell nucleus?


812) What is a chromosome made up of?


813) How are chromosomes normally found in body cells?


814) What is a cell cycle?


815) What happens during the cell cycle?


816) What must happen before a cell divides?


817) in mitosis what happens after DNA has been replicated?


818) In mitosis how many cells are produced and how could you describe them?


819) What are the three main stages of a cell cycle during mitosis?


820) Why is cell division by mitosis important in multicellular organisms?


821) A human cell has 46 pairs of choromsomes what stage of mitosis is in it?


822) What are the other risk factors apart from lifestyle risk factors?


823) In terms of cells what is cancer?


824) What are benign tumours?


825) Can benign tumours cause cancer to spread around the body?


826) What are malignant tumours?


827) How do malignant tumours form secondary tumours?


828) What are the main risk factors for various types of cancer?


829) At what stage of an animal cell's life cycle does it differentiate?


830) What happens during cell differentiation when an organism develops?


831) What happens to a cell during differentiation to become a specialised cell?


832) Why is cell differentiation important?


833) In mature animals, what is cell division mainly used for?


834) What is a stem cell?


835) What is the function of stem cells in human embryos?


836) What type of cells can be produced from bone marrow stem cells?


837) What conditions are stem cells used to treat?


838) What is produced in therapeutic cloning?


839) Why can stem cells from embryos useful in medical treatment?


840) What are the dangers of using stem cells for treatment?


841) What are the ethical issues surrounding the use of stem cells?


842) What is the function of stem cells in meristem tissues in plants?


843) What are the advantages of using stem cells from meristems in plants?


844) How can stem cells be used to ensure biodiversity?


845) How can farmers benefit from the use of stem cells from meristems?


846) How do substances move in and out of cells?


847) What is the definition for diffusion?


848) Name two substances that are transported in and out of cells by diffusion during gas exchange


849) How does the waste product urea reach the kidney to be excreted?


850) How does the concentration gradient affec the rate of diffusion?


851) How does the difference in temperature affect the rate of diffusion?


852) How does the surface area of the membrane affect the rate of diffusion?


853) What is osmosis?


854) What are the important things to include in a diagram that shows osmosis?


855) How do you calculate the rate of water uptake?


856) How do you calculate a percentage?


857) How do you calculate the percentage gain and loss of mass of plant tissue?


858) What marking points are important to consider when plotting, drawing and interpreting graphs?


859) What is the name of the process in which water moves across cell membranes?


860) What is the surface area to volume ratio of a single-celled organism like?


861) How does having a large surface area to volume ratio help cells?


862) How do you calculate surface area to volume ratios?


863) Why do simple organisms need exchange surfaces?


864) Why do multicelluar organisms need transport systems?


865) How are the small intestine and lungs in mammals adapted for exchanging materials?


866) How are the gills in fish are adapted for exchanging materials?


867) How are leaves in plants adapted for exchanging materials?


868) How are multicellular organisms adapted for exchanging materials?


869) How do organisms get substances they need in and out of cells?


870) How can the effectiveness of an exchange surface be increased?


871) What is active transport?


872) Does active transport require energy?


873) How does active transport allow plants to absorb esstential ions from soil?


874) Why do plants require ions from the soil?


875) How does active transport allow sugar to move from the gut into the blood when it has a higher sugar concentration?


876) Why is sugar esstential to cells of living things?


877) What are the three ways that substances can enter and leave cells?


878) What are the differences between diffusion, osmosis and active transport?


879) What are the basic building blocks of living organisms?


880) What is a tissue?


881) What are organs?


882) What are organ systems?


883) What is the order, from smallest to largest, of organs, organ systems, cells and tissues?


884) Why is the digestive system an example of an organ system?


885) How do enzymes relate to metabolism?


886) What are the products of digestion used for?


887) Where is bile made and stored?


888) What does bile do with the stomach acid?


889) What does bile do with fats?


890) What two factors increase the rate of fat breakdown by lipase?


891) How does temperature and pH affect the activity of enzymes?


892) How do you calculate a rate of reaction?


893) What is the most important part of the enzyme with regartds to its shape?


894) The binding of the substrate with the active site is known as what theory?


895) Where are amylase, protease and lipases created in the body?


896) Why are enzymes needed in digestion?


897) What do carbohydrases break carbohydrates down to?


898) What does the carbohydrase amylase break down?


899) What do proteases break proteins down into?


900) What do lipases break fat/lipids down into?


901) What is the structure and function of each of the following: a) heart, b) lungs?


902) How are lungs adapted for gaseous exchange?


903) How is blood pumped around the body in the human circulatory system?


904) Where does the left ventricle pump blood to and where does the right ventricle pump to?


905) What are the names and functions of the blood vessels in the heart?


906) What are the names and functions of the main structures in the lungs?


907) What controls the natural resting heart rate?


908) What are artificial pacemakers?


909) What different types of cells make up blood tissue?


910) What are the functions of the components of blood? Plasma, red blood cell, white blood cell, platelets.


911) What risks are related to the use of blood products?


912) How are the red and white blood cells adapted for their functions?


913) What are the three different types of blood vessel found in the body?


914) How does the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries relate to their functions?


915) How do you calculate the rate of blood flow?


916) What are the advantages and disadvantages of treating cardiovascular diseases using drugs, mechanical devices or transplant?


917) How does coronary heart disease effect the body?


918) What are the causes, and impact on the heart, of angina?


919) What are stents used for?


920) What effect do statins have on the body?


921) What effect can a faulty heart value have on the body?


922) What are the consequences of having a faulty heart valve?


923) How can heart faulty heart valves be replaced?


924) What is a long term treatment for heart or lung failure?


925) When is it appropriate to use an artificial heart?


926) What does the term "health" relate to?


927) What factors can relate to ill health?


928) Can some diseases cause a person to contract other illnesses?


929) How are viruses linked to cancer?


930) How are immune reactions related to allergies?


931) What other impacts can severe physical illness have on a person?


932) What does the term "relationship" mean when referring to disease incidence data presented in a table or graph?


933) What does epidemiological data refer to?


934) What are the risk factors that can increase the rate of a disease?


935) What does the term "risk factors" mean?


936) What are the different causal mechanisms that have been proven for some risk factors such as diet, smoking, obesity, radiation?


937) Are diseases usually caused by one or more factors?


938) What impact would a larger sample size have on the validity of the data?


939) What correlation would you expect to see between the following pairs of variables in terms of risk factors: a) smoking vs. incidence of cancer, b) alcohol consumption vs. foetal growth, c) drugs vs. mental health concerns?


940) How do the structures of each plant tissue relate to their function?


941) What tissues are found within the plant?


942) What level of organisation do plant leaves fall into?


943) How are the following adapted to their functions: a) root hair cells, b) xylem, c) phloem?


944) How does increasing temperature, humidity and light intensity affect the rate of transpiration?


945) Which parts of the plant are involved in transporting substances?


946) What are translocation and transpiration and how do they work?


947) What is the job of the root hair cells and how are they adapted to it?


948) What is the role of xylem tissue and how is it adapted for it?


949) What is the role of the stomata and guard cells?


950) What is the role of the phloem and what is the name of this process?


951) What products are made in photosynthesis when carbon dioxide and water react?


952) What sort of reaction is photosynthesis and how do we know this?


953) What five different uses do plants have for the glucose produced in photosynthesis?


954) What else do plants need to produce proteins and where do they get them from?


955) How do each of the following factors affect the rate of photosynthesis: a) temperature, b) light intensity, c) carbon dioxide concentration, d) amount of chlorophyll?


956) What method can be used to measure and calculate the rate of photosynthesis?


957) (HT only) What is a limiting factor of photosynthesis?


958) (HT) How is the inverse square law important in terms of light intensity in the context of photosynthesis?


959) (HT) How do limiting factors in a greenhouse relate to rate of photosynthesis and profit?


960) What sort of reaction can cellular respiration be described as?


961) What is the energy transferred in respiration needed for?


962) In which ways can respiration in cells transfer energy?


963) What is the difference in products and amount of energy produced by aerobic respiration compared to anaerobic respiration?


964) What three things do organisms need energy for?


965) How can aerobic respiration be displayed in a word equation?


966) What do the following symbols C6H12O6 , O2 , CO2 and H2O represent?


967) What equation represents anaerobic respiration in muscle cells?


968) Why is less energy produced in anaerobic respiration compared to aerobic respiration?


969) What equation shows the anaerobic respiration in plant and yeast cells?


970) What is anaerobic respiration in yeast cells also known as and why has it got economic importance?


971) What does the body react to during exercise?


972) What changes happen in the cardiovascular system when exercise increases and why?


973) When does anaerobic respiration take place in muscles?


974) What causes oxygen debt?


975) What happens to the muscles during long periods of vigorous activity?


976) (HT) How is lactic acid converted back to glucose?


977) (HT) What is the oxygen debt?


978) How can metabolism be described?


979) How are respiration and metabolism linked?


980) What processes are included in metabolism?


981) Why are sugars, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol important in the synthesis of new materials?


982) What are pathogens?


983) What are the humans natural defence systems against pathogens?


984) What is the role of the immune system in the defence against disease?


985) How does the immune system respond if a pathogen enters the body?


986) How do white blood cells help to defend against pathogens? (give 3 ways)


987) How do the different pathogens spread in animals and plants?


988) How can the spread of diseases be reduced or prevented?


989) What four categories can pathogens fall into?


990) What can pathogens infect and how are they spread?


991) What do bacteria and viruses do once inside the body?


992) How do bacteria make us feel ill?


993) How do viruses cause damage to the cells?


994) What is measles and why are young children vaccinated against it?


995) How is the measles virus spread?


996) What is the initial symptom of HIV and what do antiretroviral drugs stop the virus doing?


997) When does late stage HIV infection or AIDS occur?


998) How is HIV spread?


999) What is tobacco mosaic virus?


1000) How does tobacco mosaic virus reduce growth in plants?


1001) How is Salmonella food poisoning spread?


1002) What animal is vaccinated in the UK to control the spread of Salmonella?


1003) What are the symptoms of salmonella and what causes them?


1004) What is gonhorrhoea and what are the symptoms?


1005) How and why has treatment of gonorrhoea changed over time?


1006) How is gonhorroea spread?


1007) How can the spread of gonorrhoea be controlled?


1008) What are three examples of plant diseases you need to know?


1009) What are the pathogens that cause malaria called?


1010) What is rose black spot and how does it affect the growth of a plant?


1011) How is rose black spot spread in the environment?


1012) How can rose black spot be treated?


1013) What vector is used to spread malaria and what are the symptoms of it?


1014) How is the spread of malaria controlled?


1015) (Bio only) What can cause plant infections?


1016) (Bio only) What causes deficiency conditions in plants?


1017) (Bio only) What ion can cause stunted growth and why?


1018) (Bio only) What ion can cause chlorosis (pale green leaves)?


1019) (Bio only) What are the chemical and physical plant defence responses.


1020) (Bio only) What are the physical defences that plants have to resist invasion of microorganisms?


1021) (Bio only) What are the chemical defences that plants have to resist invasion of microorganisms?


1022) (Bio only) What are the different ways that plant diseases can be detected?


1023) (Bio only) How can plant diseases be identified? (give three ways)


1024) (Bio only) What are the mechanical adaptations that plants have to resist invasion of microoganisms?


1025) How do vaccinations prevent illness in an individual and the spread of disease in a population?


1026) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using vaccinations to prevent disease?


1027) What is in a vaccine?


1028) How does a vaccination work?


1029) How are infective diseases treated?


1030) How are drugs used to cure bacterial diseases?


1031) Why are specific antibiotics prescribed by doctors?


1032) What has the impact of using antibiotics to treat infectious bacterial diseases?


1033) Why are doctors advised to not overly prescribe antibiotics?


1034) Why can antibiotics not be used to treat viral infections?


1035) Why do people take painkillers and other medicines when suffering from an infectious disease?


1036) Why are there no drugs to kill viruses? (vaccinations prevent infection)


1037) Where are drugs traditionally extracted from?


1038) Which plant does the heart drug digitalis orginate from?


1039) Which plant does the painkiller aspirin orginate from?


1040) Who discovered pneicillin and from what?


1041) How are most new drugs synthesised by chemists?


1042) Why are new drugs tested and trialled before being used?


1043) What happens during preclinical testing?


1044) What happens during clinical trials?


1045) What level of dose is used at the start of the clinical trial?


1046) If the new drug is found to be safe during the initial clinical trial what do scientists do to the dosage?


1047) What does a double blind trial mean?


1048) What is the final stage of the drug trial?


1049) What are the stages involved in developing a new drug?


1050) (Bio only) How are monoclonal antibodies produced?


1051) (Bio only) How many clone of cells produce monoclonal antibodies


1052) (Bio only) Why are monoclonal antibodies important?


1053) (Bio only) How can monoclonal antibodies produced?


1054) (Bio only) How are hybridoma cells made and why are they useful?


1055) (Bio only) Why are single hybridoma cells cloned?


1056) (Bio only) Why is the use of hybridoma cells important?


1057) (Bio only) What ethical issues are there in the use of monochlonal antibodies?


1058) (Bio only) List 6 ways that monoclonal antibodies can be used


1059) (Bio only) How can monochlonal diseases be used to treat cancer?


1060) (Bio only) Does the use of monochlonal antibodies harm other cells in the body?


1061) (Bio only) List examples of how monoclonal antibodies are useful as treatments or tests.


1062) (Bio only) What are the disadvantages of using monoclonal antibodies?


1063) (Bio only) What are the advantages of monoclonal antibodies?


1064) Why is the nervous system important?


1065) How is the nervous system adapted to its function?


1066) What do the control systems in the body include?


1067) How is this control made automatic?


1068) What is homeostasis?


1069) Why is homeostasis important?


1070) What things does homeostasis control?


1071) How is information transmitted in the nervous system?


1072) What is in the central nervous system?


1073) What is the role of the central nervous system?


1074) What are the stages of the reflex arc?


1075) How are the neurones adapted to their function?


1076) Why are reflex actions so important?


1077) How are reflex actions described?


1078) Required Practical 7 - Reaction Time (AT skills 1,3,4)


1079) What is the endocrine system and what is its role?


1080) What are the names of the glands labelled 2, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 in the following image? http://bit.ly/2Cy01Tj


1081) What is the role of the bloodstream in the endocrine system?


1082) How does the endocrine system compare to the nervous system?


1083) What is the pituitary gland described as and what is its role?


1084) What do the hormones released by the pituitary gland do?


1085) (HT) Where are thyroxine and adrenaline created in the body?


1086) (HT) What is the role of adrenaline in the body?


1087) (HT) What is the role of thyroxine in the body?


1088) (HT) How are thyroxine levels controlled?


1089) What organ monitors and controls blood glucose concentration?


1090) How does the pancreas control blood glucose levels?


1091) What do the liver and muscle cells do to excess glucose?


1092) How does insulin control blood glucose levels?


1093) What is type 1 diabetes and how is it treated?


1094) What is type 2 diabetes and how is it controlled?


1095) Which diabetes is obesity a risk factor for?


1096) (HT) How does the body increase the blood glucose concentration?


1097) (HT) How does glucagon control blood glucose levels?


1098) How do osmotic changes in fluids affect red blood cells?


1099) (HT) How does ADH affect the permeability of the kidney tubules?


1100) How does water from the lungs leave the body?


1101) (HT) What is the role of the hormone ADH?


1102) What is lost from the skin through sweat?


1103) (HT) How is water concentration controlled by ADH and what is this process controlled by?


1104) Can we control loss through the lungs and skin?


1105) How are people with kidney failure treated?


1106) What is lost in urine?


1107) What happens to body cells if they lose of gain too much water?


1108) (HT) Where do excess amino acids come from and how do we safely get rid of them?


1109) What is the function of the kidneys?


1110) How do the kidneys produce urine?


1111) What is the function of the brain and what is its structure?


1112) What are the functions of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and medulla?


1113) (HT only) Why is it so hard to treat damage to the brain?


1114) (HT only) How did neuroscientists discover the functions of the different parts of the brain?


1115) (HT only) What characteristics of the brain make it difficult to treat and investigate brain disorders?


1116) How do the cilliary muscles and the suspensory ligaments allow the eye to focus on near or distant objects?


1117) How is the eye adapted to its function?


1118) How are the structures of the following related to their functions: - retina - optic nerve - sclera - cornea - iris - ciliary muscles - suspensory ligaments?


1119) What is accommodation?


1120) What processes must the eye go through in order to focus on a near object or on a distant object?


1121) What are myopia and hyperopia and how do they affect the eye?


1122) What are myopia and hyperopia usually treated with and how do they help?


1123) What new technologies are there in place to treat eye defects?


1124) What controls body temperature and how does it do it?


1125) What is the role of the skin in monitoring body temperature?


1126) What happens to the body when the core body temperature is too low?


1127) How do vasodilation and sweating help cool down the body?


1128) What happens to the body when its core temperature is too low?


1129) (HT only) How does vasoconstriction help increase the body temperature?


1130) What do reproductive hormones do to the body during puberty?


1131) What is the main female reproductive hormone and where is it produced?


1132) What is ovulation and how often does it occur?


1133) Where is testosterone produced and what is its role?


1134) Is there just one hormone involved in the menstruation of women or are there several?


1135) What is the role of follicle stimulating hormone?


1136) What is the role of luteinising hormone?


1137) Which hormones are involved in maintaining the uterus lining?


1138) (HT only) How do FSH, LH, oestrogen and progesterone interact in the menstrual cycle?


1139) Which of the hormones shows the sharpest spike in a graph of hormone levels during the menstrual cycle?


1140) Give an advantage and disadvantage of condoms, the pill and the implant.


1141) What are the two categories of contraception?


1142) Name at least 7 forms of contraception and how they work.


1143) (HT) Which hormones can be used to treat infertility and how is it used?


1144) (HT) How has developments in microscope technology and techniques enabled IVF treatment to improve?


1145) (HT) Which hormones can be used to treat infertility and how is it used?Which hormones can be used to treat infertility and how is it used?


1146) (HT) What are some social and ethical issues associated with IVF treatment?


1147) (HT) What are some of the disadvantages of IVF?


1148) (HT) Describe the stages of IVF.


1149) (Separates only) What are the hormonal responses in plants to light and gravity called?


1150) (Separates only) What causes the unequal growth rates in shoots and roots that means plants can grow in specific directions?


1151) (HT) What role does Gibberellins have in a plant?


1152) (HT) What role does Ethene have in a plant?


1153) (Separates only) Give some uses of plant hormones that can be used to control plant growth


1154) (Separates only) What are plant hormones used by people in?


1155) (Separates only) What negative effect can the use of hormones as weed killers have?


1156) (Separates only) How do people use auxins?


1157) (Separates only) How do people use ethene?


1158) (Separates only) How do people use Gibberellins?


1159) How is the structure of DNA described and what is a genome?


1160) Where is DNA found in a cell?


1161) What is the structure of DNA like?


1162) How is DNA contained in the nucleus?


1163) What is a gene?


1164) What is a genome?


1165) Why is the study of the human genome important?


1166) What is the importance of sutdying the human genome?


1167) What is the structure of a nucleotide like?


1168) What are the letters used for the four DNA bases?


1169) What is DNA?


1170) What controls which amino acid is made during protien synthesis?


1171) What controls which protien is made during protien synthesis?


1172) What are the different parts of DNA strcuture?


1173) What is the structure of a DNA polymer?


1174) What are the steps in protein synthesis? What happens in these steps?


1175) How does the structure of DNA affect the protien that is made during protien synthesis?


1176) How do genetic variants influence a persons phenotype through coding DNA and non coding DNA?


1177) What are the DNA base pairs?


1178) How can a change in DNA structure result in a change in the protein synthesised by a gene?


1179) Where does protein synthesis take place in a cell?


1180) What is the role of a carrier molecule in protein synthesis?


1181) Why is a proteins unique shape important?


1182) What happens to the number of chromosomes in gametes from meiosis? How is the full number of chromosomes restored?


1183) How are gametes formed?


1184) What happens when a cell divides to form gametes? Are the gametes genetically identical or different?


1185) What happens during fertilisation? What happens to the cells as the embryo grows?


1186) What sort of cells are produced during meiosis?


1187) What sort of cells are produced during mitosis?


1188) What happens during meiosis? What are examples of gametes in animals and flowering plants?


1189) How is variety gained during sexual reproduction?


1190) What process allows gametes to be formed?


1191) How is asexual reproduction different to sexual reproduction?


1192) How does asexual reproduction lead to clones?


1193) What is the effect on the protein if one DNA base is altered due to a mutation?


1194) What is the effect on the protein if a few DNA bases are altered due to continious mutations?


1195) The normal coding for a gene is GGA ATG. What is the type of mutation for: 1. GGC ATG 2. GGA AT


1196) Why does a having few mutations in the DNA code cause problems?


1197) How can mutations in non-coding parts of DNA affect how genes are expressed?


1198) What are the advantages of sexual reproduction?


1199) What are the advantages of asexual reproduction?


1200) Do all organisms have to reproduce only sexually or asexually?


1201) What is the definition for gamete?


1202) What is the definition for a chromosome?


1203) What is the definition for a allele?


1204) What is the definition for a dominant?


1205) What is the definition for a recessive?


1206) What is the definition for a homozygous?


1207) What is the definition for a hetrozygous?


1208) What is the definition for a genotype?


1209) What is the definition for a phenotype?


1210) Give two examples of characteristics that are controlled by a single gene


1211) How are genotype and phenotype related?


1212) What is the phenotype when there is a dominant allele?


1213) What is the phenotype when there are two recessive alleles?


1214) What is the difference between homozygous and hetrozygous alleles?


1215) Are most characteristics controlled by single genes or multiple genes interacting?


1216) What is the probability of a child having homozygous recessive alleles if their parents are both hetrozygous for a trait?


1217) What is the probability of a child having hetrozygous alleles if their parents are both hetrozygous for a trait?


1218) What is the probability of a child having a diseases that is carried on a dominant alleles if their parents are both hetrozygous for a trait?


1219) What is the probability of a child having homozygous dominant alleles if their parents are both hetrozygous for a trait?


1220) How are inherited diseases passed on?


1221) What causes polydactyly?


1222) What causes cystic fibrosis?


1223) What are the economical, social and ethical issues concerning embryo screening?


1224) How many chromosomes are found in an ordinary human body cell?


1225) What does the 23rd choromsome determine?


1226) What is combination of sex chorosomes for a male and female?


1227) Draw a genetic cross to show sex inheritance


1228) What is the probability of having a male or female offpsring?


1229) How have organisms been classified traditionally and who by?


1230) What did Linnaeus classify all living things into?


1231) How are organisms named scientifically?


1232) What development lead to new models of classification and how?


1233) Who developed the 'three-domain system' and how are organisms in this system classified?


1234) Why are evolutionary trees used by scientists and what data do they use for it?


1235) How does the genome and the environment influence the development of phenotype?


1236) How do differences in the characteristics of individuals occur?


1237) How much genetic variation is usually within a population?


1238) When is a recessive allele expressed?


1239) (Biology only) How often do mutations occur and how often do they lead to a new phenotype? What happens when a new phenotype is suited to an environmental change?


1240) What is evolution?


1241) What does the theory of evolution state?


1242) How does evolution occur?


1243) How is a new species formed?


1244) What are the impacts of selective breeding of food plants and domesticated animals?


1245) What is selective breeding and how long have humans been doing it?


1246) How do humans carry out selective breeding?


1247) Why are certain characteristics chosen during selective breeding? What are some examples of these in plants and animals?


1248) What disadvantages can selective breeding have?


1249) What evidence is there to support Darwin's theory of evolution?


1250) How did Oregor Mendal develop our understanding of genetics?


1251) Why was the importance of Mendel's discovery not accepted until after his death?


1252) What observation did Mendel make of the inheritance of plants?


1253) What wasn't observed about cell division until the late 19th century?


1254) What happened in the early 20th century to link Mendel's 'units' and chromosomes and what idea did this lead to?


1255) What happened in the mid-20th century to further develop gene theory?


1256) What is genetic engineering?


1257) What examples are there of genetic engineering in plant crops?


1258) (Biology only) What examples in medicine uses genetically engineered bacteria?


1259) What are the potential benefits and risks of genetic engineering in agriculture and medicine?


1260) What occurs within the chromosomes during genetic engineering?


1261) What do we call crops that have genes from other organisms in them?


1262) How does genetic modification increase the longevity of crops?


1263) How does genetic modification increase the yield of a crop?


1264) What concerns are there about GM crops?


1265) How is genetic modification important in medicine?


1266) (HT only) What are the steps involved in genetic engineering?


1267) How does the technique of tissue culturing enable cloning? Why is this important for plants?


1268) What way, other than tissue culture, can plants be cloned by gardeners?


1269) How is embryo transplant cloning carried out?


1270) What are the steps involved in adult cell cloning?


1271) What are the potential benefits and risks involved in cloning and why do some people object?


1272) How did Charles Darwin come up with the theory of evolution by natural selection?


1273) What does the theory of eveolution by natural selection involve?


1274) What lead to the development of the theory of evolution by natural selection?


1275) What was the name of the book that Charles Darwin published his ideas in andwere people happy with it?


1276) Why did it take a long time for the theory of evolution by natural selection to be accepted?


1277) What was Lamarck's theory?


1278) What was the impact of Darwin and Wallace's ideas?


1279) Who was Alfred Russell Wallace and how is he linked to Charles Darwin?


1280) What is Wallace best known for?


1281) What was needed to support Alfred Wallace's work in order to lead to our current understanding of the theory of speciation?


1282) In what ways do new species arise? How are these described?


1283) What evidence is there now to support Darwin'stheory of evolution?


1284) What are fossils?


1285) How can fossils be formed?


1286) Why is there little evidence of very early life forms?


1287) Why can we not be certain of how life on earthformed even from hard bodied organisms?


1288) What is the main thing we can learn from fossils?


1289) Why is the fossil record described as incomplete?


1290) How do scientific methods and theories develop over time?


1291) What is extinction?


1292) What are some of the factors that contribute to extinction?


1293) Why can bacteria evolve rapidly?


1294) What are the stages of antibacterial resistance?


1295) What is the bacteria MRSA resistant to?


1296) What should be done to reduce the rate of development of antibiotc resistant bacteria?


1297) Why can't medical professionals just produce new antibiotics to fight resistant bacteria?


1298) What are the different levels of organisation in an ecosystem from individual organisms to the whole ecosystem?


1299) What is the importance of interdependence and competition in a community?


1300) What factors are organisms competing for in a given habitat?


1301) What is an ecosystem?


1302) What do organisms require to survive?


1303) What do plants compete for?


1304) What do animals compete for?


1305) What do species within a community depend on each other for?


1306) What is a stable community?


1307) What is an abiotic factor?


1308) What abiotic (non-living) factors affect a community?


1309) What is a biotic factor?


1310) What types of Biotic (living) factors affect a community?


1311) What are the producers of biomass for life on Earth?


1312) How can feeding relationships be represented?


1313) What do all food chains begin with?


1314) What is the difference between mean, mode and median?


1315) What is the order of energy transfer between secondary consumer, tertiary consumer, producer and primary consumer


1316) What is an organism that eats a consumer called? What is a consumer that is eaten by another consumer called?


1317) What is a predator-prey cycle?


1318) What is an adaptation?


1319) How are organisms adapted to live in their natural environment?


1320) What are the three types of adaptations organisms can have to survive in the conditions that they live?


1321) What is an extremophile?


1322) What type of microbe lives in deep sea vents?


1323) When would a transect line be used?


1324) What different parts of the ecosystem do materials cycle through?


1325) Why is it important that carbon and water are cycled through the ecosystem.


1326) Why do materials need to be recycled?


1327) What process are carbon to be cycled from A) carbon dioxide to producers, B) producers to consumers, C) Producers/consumers/decomposers to carbon dioxide and D) fossil fuels to carbon dioxide


1328) How do microorganisms help to cycle material through an ecosystem?


1329) Why is precipitation important for organisms in ecosystems?


1330) How does water get from the land to the air and the air back to the land?


1331) What three factors affect the rate of decay of biological material?


1332) Name two groups of people would want to provide optimum conditions for rapid decay of waste biological material.


1333) Why would gardeners and farmers want to provide optimum conditions for rapid decay of waste material.


1334) Under what conditions can decay produce methane that can be used a biogas fuel?


1335) How might changes to the environment affect species?


1336) What are potential environmental changes?


1337) What might be some causes of changes in the environment?


1338) How can an increase in human population affect pollution?


1339) Where can pollution occur and what does it occur from?


1340) How can pollution affect biodiversity?


1341) What are the environmental implications of deforestation?


1342) What are the biological consequences of global warming?


1343) Why is global warming increasing?


1344) What does the scientific consensus say about global warming and climate change?


1345) N/A


1346) What is the definition of biodiversity?


1347) How do humans reduce the amount of land available for other animals?


1348) What is the benefit of having a great biodiversity?


1349) How does the destruction of peat bogs affect biodiversity?


1350) Why is it so important to maintain biodiversity?


1351) What does the decay or burning of peat lead to?


1352) What effect to human activities have on biodiversity in general?


1353) Why is there conflict of opinion when it comes to the peat industry?


1354) What effect do waste, deforestation and global warming have on biodiversity?


1355) What two main reasons are there for large-scale deforestation in tropical areas?


1356) What is the impact of both positive and negative human interactions in an ecosystem?


1357) Why have scientists and concerned citizens had to put programmes in place to protect the environment?


1358) What are some of the programmes put in place by scientists and concerned citizens to protect the environment?


1359) What is the difference between a producer and primary consumer?


1360) What is a producer?


1361) What is a primary consumer?


1362) What are predators that eat herbivores called?


1363) What is an apex predator?


1364) What is the role of a decomposer and how do they do it?


1365) How do the food molecules broken down by decomposers get into the microorganism?


1366) What do pyramids of biomass represent and where can trophic level 1 be found?


1367) What is the shape of a pyramid of biomass?


1368) How is biomass lost between different trophic levels?


1369) Name examples of producers.


1370) What % of biomass is transferred up each trophic level?


1371) What are losses of biomass due to?


1372) What is used in respiration?


1373) If the producer trophic level has 4200J of energy and the primary consumer has 800J what is the efficiency of transfer between these trophic levels?


1374) How can the efficiency of biomass transfers between trophic levels be calculated?


1375) How does lost biomass affect the amount of organisms at each trophic level?


1376) What are the biological factors that affect food security?


1377) What does food security mean?


1378) What are some of the Biological factors which are threatening food security?


1379) What type of method should be used to feed all people on Earth?


1380) How could the efficiency of food production be improved?


1381) Why are some animals fed high protein foods?


1382) Why do some people have ethical objections to some modern intensive farming methods?


1383) Give an advantages and disadvantages of modern farming techniques.


1384) Why is it important to maintain fish stock levels in the sea?


1385) What plays an important part in conservation of fish stocks at a sustainable level?


1386) What is the most sustainable way of fishing?


1387) How can genetic modification be used to increase crop yield to meet the demands of a growing population.


1388) What can modern biotechnology techniques be used for?


1389) Why is the fungus Fusarium useful?


1390) How can a fungus be grown?


1391) Give an example where a genetically modified bacterium can be used.


1392) What type of crop could provide more food or food with an improved nutritional value?


1393) When do you use the Big Idea of Forces?


1394) When do you use the Big Idea of Particles?


1395) When do you use the Big Idea of Cells?


1396) When do you use the Big Idea of Energy?


1397) When do you use the Big Idea of Interdependence?


1398) What are the three states of matter?


1399) How are the three states of matter represented when using solid spheres to represent particles?


1400) What happens to a substance as it changes from a solid to a liquid?


1401) Why do different substances have different melting and boiling points?


1402) What are the limitations to using simple particle models used to represent the different states of matter?


1403) What state would substance A be at room temperature (25oC) when substance A has a melting point of -10oC and a boiling point of 55oC?


1404) Why does water boil at 100oC rather than 90oC, in terms of bonding and energy transfers?


1405) (HT) What are the limitations of the particle theory in relation to changes of state?


1406) What is the smallest part of an element that can exist?


1407) How are atoms of elements represented on the periodic table?


1408) How many different elements are there?


1409) How are compounds formed?


1410) How can chemical reactions be detected other than through the observation of new substances forming?


1411) What is a compound and how is it respresented?


1412) What type of reaction is needed to separate a compound into elements?


1413) How are chemical reactions represented?


1414) What are the names and symbols of elements in Groups 1 and 7?


1415) What are the names of the following compounds: NaCl, KF, LiBr?


1416) In a chemical equation, what do the symbols (s), (l), (g), and (aq) represent?


1417) What state symbols are added to each part of the chemical equation below? C O2 -> CO2


1418) What is a mixture?


1419) What happens to the chemical properties of each substance in a mixture?


1420) When mixtures are separated by physical processes how does this affect the chemical reactions and substances made?


1421) How are mixtures separated using filtration?


1422) How are mixtures separated using crystallisation?


1423) How are mixtures separated using simple distillation?


1424) How are mixtures separated using fractional distillation?


1425) How are mixtures separated using chromatography?


1426) How could we separare a mixture of sand, salt, iron and water into its individual components?


1427) What can lead to a scientific model being changed or replace?


1428) What is an atom?


1429) What were the main features of the 'plum pudding' model of the atom?


1430) How did the 'plum pudding' model describe the structure of an atom?


1431) How did the Rutherford's alpha particle scattering experiment change our understanding of the structure of the atom?


1432) What contribution did Niels-Bohr make in furthering our understanding of the structure of the atom.


1433) Which subatomic particle gives the nucleus of the atom a positive charge?


1434) What discovery did James Chadwick make that advanced our understanding of the structure of an atom?


1435) How did the evidence of alpha particles scattering lead to a change in the atomic model?


1436) Describe the currently accepted structure of the atom


1437) What are the relative electrical charges of each sub-atomic particle?


1438) Why do atoms have no overall charge?


1439) If an atom has 9 protons, how many electrons would it have?


1440) What does the atomic number of an element tell us?


1441) What do all atoms of a particular element have in common?


1442) What are the differences between an atom of Nitrogen and an atom of Carbon. What is it that makes them unique elements?


1443) How does the current nuclear model describe an atom?


1444) How large is the radius of the nucleus of an atom in comparison to its total radius?


1445) Where is the majority of the mass of the atom found?


1446) What are the relative masses of each subatomic particle (proton, neutron and electron)?


1447) What does the mass number of an atom tell us about that atom?


1448) What is an isotope?


1449) What do the individual tiles of the periodic table tell us?


1450) Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom of Cobalt. Mass number = 59 and Atomic number = 27


1451) How large are atoms? a) 1 × 10-6 m b) 1 × 10-8 m c) 1 × 10-10 m


1452) Why does chlorine have a mass number of 35.5?


1453) What is the relative atomic mass of bromine where there are two isotopes of Bromine, 50% Br-79 and 50% Br-81?


1454) What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held by each of the three inner most shells?


1455) What would a diagram of the electron structure of an atom of carbon look like?


1456) Why is carbon found in group 4 of the periodic table?


1457) How big is the total radius of an average atom?


1458) How are elements ordered in the periodic table?


1459) Metals react to form __________ charged ions


1460) In terms of electron structure, how are elements in the same group similar?


1461) Non-metals react to form __________ charged ions


1462) What does the group and period of an element tell us about its electron structure?


1463) Are there more metals or non-metal elements on the periodic table?


1464) Predict how the reactivity of caesium would compare to lithium


1465) How were elements in early periodic tables ordered?


1466) Why were early attempts at ordering the periodic table by atomic mass unsuccessful?


1467) How did Mendeleev predict the existence of several undiscovered elements when designing his periodic table?


1468) How are metals and non-metal elements arranged on the periodic table


1469) What steps were involved in the development of the periodic table?


1470) Which group of the periodic table are also named the nobel gases?


1471) Describe in terms of electron structure as to why all of the nobel gases are unreactive


1472) What is the same about the electron structure for all elements in Group 0 (noble gases)?


1473) Describe the trend in boiling point down group 0


1474) What is the common name given to the group 1 elements?


1475) Give 4 common properties of transition metal elements.


1476) Write a word equation for the reaction of sodium with chlorine.


1477) Describe the trend in reactivity in group 1 as you go down the group


1478) For elements in Group 1, what do the properties depend on?


1479) Explain why elements become more reactive the further you go down group 1


1480) What are the transition elements?


1481) Compare the properties of transition metal elements with those of the group 1 elements.


1482) Give examples of 3 transition metals


1483) What is the common name given to the group 7 elements?


1484) Describe the trend in boiling point and melting point of elements as you go down group 7?


1485) Describe the trend in reactivity of elements as you go down group 7?


1486) Write a word equation for the reaction between sodium chloride and fluorine. What type of reaction is this?


1487) In terms of electron structure, whAt do all group 7 elements share in common?


1488) List the elements of group 7 in order of reactivity.


1489) Many transition elements are also useful as catalysts. What is a catalyst?


1490) List the general properties of compounds of transition elements


1491) How can different atoms interact with each to gain a full outer shell of electrons.


1492) What are the three types of chemical bonding?


1493) Name the type of attraction between particles in an ionic bond


1494) In terms of electrons, how are covalent bonds formed?


1495) Metallic bonds have delocalised electrons. What are delocalised electrons?


1496) Ionic bonding occurs in compounds formed from ________ combined with ___________.


1497) Covalent bonding occurs when _____________ atoms bond together.


1498) Metallic bonding occurs between atoms of __________ elements.


1499) What is chemical bonding?


1500) Describe the transfer of electrons in an ionic bond


1501) When a metal atom become an ion it loses electrons. How does this effect its charge?


1502) When a non-metal atom bonds ionically it gains electrons. How does this effect its charge?


1503) What is the electronic structure of ions produced by group 1,2 metals and group 6,7 non metals?


1504) How could you show the formation of an ionic compound using a dot and cross diagram?


1505) Draw a dot cross diagram to show the ionic bond in sodium chloride.


1506) What charge do ions of elements from the following groups form 1) Group 1 2) Group 2 3) Group 6 4) Group 7


1507) Explain why potassium chloride is KCl but potassium oxide is K2O


1508) What is an ionic compound?


1509) What do we call the attraction between oppositely charged ions?


1510) Describe the structure of a giant ionic lattice.


1511) What two models can be used to represent giant ionic structures?


1512) Give a limitation of each the ball and stick model and charged ion ionic lattice models for representing ionic bonds.


1513) Determine the empirical formulae of a compound given the ions: a) Na+ and N3- b) Al3+ and O2-


1514) Draw out a dot cross diagram to show the ionic bond formed in the compound sodium chloride.


1515) What are covalent bonds?


1516) What type of substances have covalent bonds?


1517) What are the names of the following substances CO2 H2O H2 Cl2


1518) Give an example of large molecules with covalent bonds


1519) Give two examples of substances that have giant covalent structures


1520) List three ways to represent covalent bonds in molecules


1521) How are polymers commonly represented?


1522) Draw dot and cross diagrams for the molecules of hydrogen, chlorine, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen chloride, water, ammonia and methane look like?


1523) How would you draw a single covalent bond?


1524) What are the limitations of using dot and cross, ball and stick, 2D and 3D diagrams to represent substances?


1525) What is the structure of a metal like?


1526) How are the electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms arranged?


1527) Why are metallic bonds so strong?


1528) Describe the structure of metallic bonding?


1529) When compared with the properties of materials, do atoms have the same bulk properties?


1530) 1. How do a metal and non-metal bond? 2. How do two non-metals bond?


1531) Why are metals good conductors of electricity?


1532) In pure metals atoms are arranged in layers. What property does this give them?


1533) Why are metals good conductors of thermal energy?


1534) Why are pure metals often mixed with other metals or carbon?


1535) Why are alloys harder than pure metals?


1536) Describe the structure of an ionic compound?


1537) Explain why ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?


1538) Under what conditions are ionic compounds able to conduct electricity?


1539) What are the structures of different ionic compounds?


1540) Substances that consist of small molecules are most commonly which states of matter at room temperature?


1541) How does the size of a molecule affect the size of its intermolecular force?


1542) Explain why substances that consist of small molecules often have low boiling and melting points


1543) Why are covalent compounds unable to conduct electricity?


1544) What is the difference between intermolecular forces and intramolecular forces?


1545) Which is stronger: A covalent bond or intermolecular force?


1546) Why is diamond so hard, in terms of its structure and bonding?


1547) Why do metals tend to have high melting and boiling points?


1548) How many bonds does each carbon atom form in graphite and how does this impact it's structure?


1549) What happens to the spare electron that remains unused in a covalent bond in graphite?


1550) Why do giant covalent structures have very high melting and boiling points?


1551) Why is graphite soft and slippery?


1552) How is graphite similar to metals?


1553) What makes graphene useful in electronics and composites?


1554) What are the properties of carbon nanotubes and what do their properties make them useful for?


1555) What are the properties of graphene in terms of its structure and bonding?


1556) What are fullerenes and what is their structure?


1557) Name three uses of fullerenes?


1558) Diamond, graphite and fullerenes are all examples of what type of structure?


1559) How many bonds can an individual atom of carbon form? How many bonds does each carbon form in an atom of a) Diamond b) Graphite


1560) Molecules of diamond, graphite and fullerenes are all held together by what type of bonds?


1561) Which giant covalent structures are made only from carbon?


1562) What was the first fullerene to be discovered and what is its shape?


1563) What sort of structures does nanoscience refer to?


1564) What is the size of a fine particle and which is smaller, nanoparticles or fine particles?


1565) What is the diameter of coarse particles, such as dust?


1566) What happens to the size of the surface area to volume ratio of a cube is you decrease the size of the sides by a factor or 10?


1567) Why are the properties of nanoparticles different from those for the same materials in bulk?


1568) How do nanoparticles compare in size to individual atoms?


1569) What are the main applications of nanoparticles?


1570) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using nanoparticles?


1571) What sort of molecules are polymers?


1572) What two monomers form polyester?


1573) What type of bond links individual monomers together when forming a polymer?


1574) What type of hydrocarbons are used to make polymers?


1575) Why are polymers solids at room temperature?


1576) What happens in an addition polymerisation reaction?


1577) How is a polymer of poly(ethene) produced from ethene? (Show using a diagram)


1578) (Chem only) How is the structure of the repeated unit of an addition polymer related to the monomer?


1579) (Chem only) How can you identify if you have a polymer or a monomer structure?


1580) (Chem only) What occurs during a condensation polymersiation reaction?


1581) (Chem only) How many functional groups does each monomer have in the simplest condensation polymerisation reactions?


1582) (Chem only) What are the basic principles of condensation polymersiation? (refer to functional groups and repeating units in your answer)


1583) (Chem only) When does condensation polymerisation occur?


1584) (Chem only) What are the monomers that form the following naturally occuring polymers? 1. proteins 2. starch 3. cellulose


1585) (Chem only) What type of polymerisation reaction occurs when amino acids react to form polypeptides? (Include a reason why)


1586) (Chem only) What would the equation looks like for the polymerisation of glycine?


1587) (Chem only) How are proteins an example of a condensation polymer?


1588) (Chem only) What is DNA and what is its function?


1589) (Chem only) Why is the structure of DNA described as a polymer?


1590) (Chem only) What are the other naturally occuring polymers that are important for life processes?


1591) What is the law of the conservation of mass?


1592) Why must we ensure that chemical equations are balanced?


1593) What do the multipliers in normal script before a chemical formula represent? Eg 2MgO


1594) How do we calculate the relative formula mass (Mr) of a compound?


1595) Why must the total relative formula mass of all of the reactants equal that of all of the products made?


1596) When a gas is produced in a chemical reaction, why would the mass of the products appear to be less than that of the reactants?


1597) Explain why in the reaction below the mass of the products would be greater than that of the reactants 2Mg (s) O2 (g) -> 2MgO (s)


1598) What does the term uncertainty mean?


1599) How would you represent the distrubtion of results to make estimations of uncertainty?


1600) A pippette has an uncertainty of +/-0.01mL. It is used three times in a practical. What is the mean measure of uncertainty?


1601) (HT only) Chemical amounts are measured in moles. What is the symbol of the unit for moles?


1602) (HT only)How can we calculate the mass of one mole of a substance?


1603) (HT only)If you have one mole each of two different substances, what will they share in common?


1604) (HT only)What does Avogadro's constant represent?


1605) (HT only)What is the value of Avogadro's constant?


1606) (HT only)Would there be any difference in the number of atoms in one mole of carbon (C) compared with the number of one mole of molecules of carbon dioxide (CO2)?


1607) (HT only)Calculate the mass of one mole of C2H6


1608) What units are used for the measurement of concentration of a solution?


1609) What is the concentration of a solution that has 37g of solute dissolved in 100cm3? Give your answer in dm3.


1610) (HT only) What is the equation that relates the mass of a solute, the volume of a solution and the concentration of the solution?


1611) Why industrially is high atom economy important?


1612) (HT only)Balance the equation and calculate the mass of the reactants and products of the balanced symbol equation: H2O2 --> H20 02


1613) (HT only)In the following equation: Mg 2HCI --> MgCI2 H2 What is the ratio of magnesium (Mg) atoms react in comparison to that of hydrochloric acid (HCl)?


1614) (HT only)CaCO3 2HCl ---> CaCl2 CO2 H2O Use the above equation to determine the mass of carbon dioxide produced if you react 10g of calcium carbonate with an excess of hydrochloric acid?


1615) (HT only)Calculate the mass of iron produced when 32g of iron (III) oxide is completely reduced by aluminium. The reaction is shown in the symbol equation: Fe2O3 2Al ? 2Fe Al2O3


1616) (HT only)How can you use the massess of reactants and products to balance a symbol equation?


1617) (HT only) Reactants Sb = 488g Cl2 = 426g Products SbCl3= 914g Complete a symbol equation for the reaction above using the masses to balance the equation.


1618) (HT only)How do you rearrange the moles equation to find the relative formulat mass? Moles = mass / RFM


1619) (HT only)What is meant when a reactant is said to be in excess?


1620) What is meant when a reactant is described as a limiting reactant?


1621) (HT only) 2H2 O2 --> 2H2O You react 10g of oxygen with 10g of hydrogen. Only 11.25g of product is made the rest of the reactants remain unused. Suggest why the full mass of reactants did not react. What is the leftover unreacted substance?


1622) (Chem only) Suggest why it is not always possible obtain the calculated amount of product from a reaction?


1623) (Chem only) What does the term yield refer to?


1624) (Chem only) What is percentage yield?


1625) (Chem only) What is the formula for calculating percentage yield?


1626) (Chem only) What mass of carbon dioxide is formed when 12 g of carbon is burned in air?


1627) (Chem only) What is atom economy a measure of?


1628) (Chem only) What is the formula for calculating percentage atom economy?


1629) (Chem only) Hydrazine (N2H4) is used in some rocket fuels. Two different methods can be used to manufacture hydrazine. The reactions are: NH2Cl NH3 ? N2H4 HCl 2NH3 H2O2 ? N2H4 2H2O Calculate the atom economy for each reaction


1630) (Chem only) How can a chemist in a chemical plant that makes rocket fuel prevent waste products being formed?


1631) (Chem only) What is mol/dm3 the unit of measurement for?


1632) (Chem only) How can we calculate the number of moles of solute in a given volume of a solution?


1633) (Chem only) What technique can we use if the volumes of two solutions that react completely are known and the concentration of one solution is known, to calculate the concentration of the other solution.


1634) (Chem only) How can we calculate the mass of a solute within a solution if we know the concentration in mol/dm3?


1635) (Chem only) What is the difference between a strong and weak acid?


1636) (Chem only) Do all gases occupy the same volume?


1637) (Chem only) What volume does one mole of any gas occupy at room temperature and pressure?


1638) (Chem only) How could you calculate the volume a gas would occupy if you were given the mass of gas made?


1639) (Chem only) If you have 88g of CO2. What volume would it occupy?


1640) (Chem only) In the reaction CH4 2O2 ? CO2 2H2O (at rtp) what volume of water vapour is produced when 2.4 dm3 of methane burns?


1641) (Chem only) Rearrange the volume of gas equation to calculate the number of moles


1642) What does the reactivity of a metal depend on?


1643) How can the reactivity of group 1 metals be compared using a practical investigation?


1644) What happens when a metal reacts with oxygen?


1645) What happens to metals in an oxidation reaction?


1646) What is meant by the term 'reduction'?


1647) What happens in terms of electrons during reduction and oxidation reactions?


1648) Why is potassium more reactive than lithium?


1649) What happens during a displacement reaction?


1650) What would the independent, dependent and control variables be for a quantitative investigation into the reactivity of metals?


1651) Where in the reactivity series does carbon appear and which elements can be displaced by carbon?


1652) What conditions are standard when investigating the reactivity of metals with water and acids?


1653) What is the list of metals (and non-metals) in the reactivity series, from most reactive to least reactive?


1654) How do each of the following metals react with each of water and dilute acids: potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron and copper?


1655) Write the ionic equation for the displacement reaction between copper ions and magnesium


1656) Why are metals such as gold found in the Earth as the metal itself?


1657) How can metals less reactive than carbon be extracted from their oxides?


1658) What is meant by 'reduction' in terms of oxygen?


1659) What substance can be used to extract the lesser reactive metals?


1660) What type of reaction is it when electrons are transferred from one species to another?


1661) Identify the species that are oxidised and reduced in the half equations below: Cu2 Mg --> Mg2 Cu


1662) What are the products when acids react with metals?


1663) (HT only) What type of reaction occurs when acids react with metals?


1664) (HT only) In a reaction between copper (II) oxide and carbon, where does each of oxidation and reduction happen?


1665) When an acid (such as hydrochloric acid) reacts with an alkali or a base (such as sodium hydroxide), what will the two products be?


1666) What products are made when an acid reacts with a metal carbonate?


1667) What factors affect the type of salt produced in a reaction between an acid and a base or alkali?


1668) What two products would be made when zinc oxide reacts with dilute hydrochloric acid?


1669) What examples of solid insoluble substances react with acids to form soluble salts?


1670) When an excess of metal oxide reactant is added to an acid, how can the pure salt solution be collected?


1671) What process is used to produce solid soluble salts from salt solutions?


1672) What are the typical steps are involved in preparing a pure, dry sample of silver chloride from silver nitrate and sodium chloride?


1673) What would the formula be if the following ions reacted to form salts: a) Mg Cl- b) Cu2 S2- c) Fe2 I-


1674) In what way can universal indicator be used to measure the approximate pH of a solution?


1675) If a substance has the following pH is it classified as acid, alkali or neutral: 1) pH 3 2) pH 11 3) pH 7


1676) What ions are produced in alkalis in aqueous solutions?


1677) What happens to strong acids in an aqueous solution in terms of ionisation?


1678) What happens to weak acids in an aqueous solution in terms of ionisation?


1679) What ions are produced in acids in aqueous solutions?


1680) When an acid is stronger, what effect does this have on the pH?


1681) What happens to the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution when pH decreases by one unit?


1682) What is meant by 'dilute' and 'concentrated' (in terms of amount of substance) and 'weak acid' and 'strong acid' (in terms of the degree of ionisation)?


1683) How is the reaction between hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions to produce water presented as an equation?


1684) How is water produced in a neutralisation reaction between an acid and an alkali in terms of ions?


1685) What piece of digital equipment can be used to measure the pH of a solution?


1686) What pH values do each of acidic, alkaline and neutral solutions have?


1687) A sample of vinegar contains 0.1 mol/dm3 ethanoic acid. What is its concentration in g/dm3? (The relative formula mass, Mr, of ethanoic acid is 60)


1688) 25 cm3 of dilute hydrochloric acid is neutralised by 20 cm3 of 0.5 mol/dm3 sodium hydroxide. What is the concentration of the hydrochloric acid?


1689) How can the volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with each other be measured?


1690) What does conservation of energy mean?


1691) In what circumstance is energy transferred to the surroundings during a chemical reaction?


1692) What happens to the energy in an exothermic reaction?


1693) What are three examples of exothermic reactions?


1694) What is an example of an exothermic reaction in everyday life?


1695) What happens to the energy in an endothermic reaction?


1696) What are three examples of endothermic reactions?


1697) What is an example of an endothermic reaction in everyday life?


1698) When a chemical reaction occurs and the temperature of the surroundings has increased, is it an exothermic or endothermic reaction?


1699) What are the advantages of using exothermic reactions for hand warmers?


1700) What is the temperature change of the solution if the starting temperature was 20 degrees and the end temperature was -5 degrees. State if this is endothermic or exothermic.


1701) Why do some collisions between reactant particles not result in a product forming?


1702) What does the term activation energy mean?


1703) What information can be shown in a reaction profile?


1704) What would the simple reaction profile for an exothermic reaction look like?


1705) What would the simple reaction profile for an endothermic reaction look like?


1706) What information does the activation energy provide?


1707) What energy transfers occur during breaking bonds of reactants and forming new bonds of products?


1708) What information can bond energies provide?


1709) How is the overall energy change of a reaction calculated?


1710) What happens in an exothermic reaction in terms of energy, bond making and bond breaking?


1711) What happens in an endothermic reaction in terms of energy, bond making and bond breaking?


1712) What is the energy transferred in the following chemical reaction: hydrogen bromide decomposing to form hydrogen and bromine? 2 ? (H?Br) ? H?H Br?Br The bond energies relevant to this reaction are shown below: H?Br 366 kJ/mol H?H 436 kJ/mol Br?Br 193kJ/mol


1713) How can the amount of energy transferred during a chemical reaction be measured using a practical?


1714) Why are chemical cells useful?


1715) What factors can affect the voltage produced by a chemical cell?


1716) How can a simple chemical cell be made?


1717) What is the structure of a battery like?


1718) Why do re-chargeable cells and batteries stop working?


1719) How can re-chargeable cells and batteries be re-charged?


1720) Which cell would be the best choice to use to power a machine? Cell A produces 0.01V of energy and cell B produces 0.20V of energy. Give a reason for your answer.


1721) What type of batteries are non-rechargeable?


1722) How do fuel cells produce a potential difference?


1723) What sort of reaction occurs in a hydrogen fuel cell?


1724) What do hydrogen fuel cells offer alternatives to?


1725) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen fuel cells compared with rechargeable cells and batteries?


1726) (HT only) What are the half equations for the electrode reactions in a hydrogen fuel cell?


1727) When is an ionic compound able to conduct electricity?


1728) (HT) What is the balanced half equation for H ? e??? H2


1729) What happens at each of the electrodes in electrolysis when an electric current is passed through the electroytes?


1730) (HT) What happens at the anode and cathode electrodes in the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride? (use half equations to help explain)


1731) Which electrode as the metals and non metals products found during electrolysis?


1732) What would the products be for the electrolysis of the following ionic compounds: 1. NaCl 2. PbBr2 3. NaOH 4. Al2O3


1733) (HT) What would the half equations be for the electrolysis of NaCl?


1734) What happens at the cathode during electrolysis? Is this an oxidation or reduction reaction?


1735) What happens at the anode during electrolysis? Is this an oxidation or reduction reaction?


1736) What would the half equations be during the electrolysis of PbBr2?


1737) When is electrolysis used to extract metals from their ores?


1738) What is the main drawback of using electrolysis to extract metals?


1739) How is aluminium extracted from its metal ore (aluminium oxide)?


1740) Why is a mixture used as the electrolyte in electrolysis?


1741) Why does the positive electrode (the anode) need to be replaced regularly?


1742) (HT)What are the missing reactants and products of the half equation shown below: Mg2 ___--> _____


1743) Why is hydrogen produced instead of sodium in the electrolysis of NaCl solution?


1744) When is hydrogen produced at the negative electrode in electrolysis?


1745) When is oxygen not produced at the positive electrode?


1746) Why are hydrogen and oxygen often discharged in the electrolysis of aqueous ionic solutions?


1747) What are the three products made in the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride?


1748) (HT)


1749) How can you separate a solution of copper II sulfate to extract low grade copper ores? (include equipment)


1750) How can the rate of a chemical reaction be calculated?


1751) How is the quantity of a reactant or product measured?


1752) What are the units for rate of reaction?


1753) (HT only) What is the third unit that is used to measure the rate of reaction in terms of moles?


1754) What would the total amount of a product formed if the rate of reaction is 4g/s and the reaction continues for 3 minutes?


1755) What key features must be included for graphs showing the quantity of product formed or quantity of reactant used up against time?


1756) How do you draw a tangent on a curve to measure the rate of a reaction on a graph?


1757) (HT only) How do you calculate the gradient of a tangent of a curve from a graph?


1758) What are the main principals of the collision theory?


1759) What factors can affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1760) What does the term activation energy mean?


1761) How does increasing the temperature increase the rate of a chemical reaction?


1762) How does increasing the pressure of reacting gases affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1763) How does decreasing the temperature of a chemical reaction affect the rate?


1764) How does increasing the surface area to volume ration of a solid reactant affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1765) How does increasing the concentration of reactants in reacting gases, and the surface solution, the pressure of area of solid reactants increase the rate of a chemical reaction?


1766) How does increasing the concentration of reactants in solution affect the rate of chemical reactions?


1767) How does changing the concentration of a reactant from 1M to 2M affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1768) How does increasing the concentration of a solution reactant or the pressure of a gas reactant affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1769) How does increasing the surface area of solid reactants affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1770) What are the key characteristics of a catalyst?


1771) What is an example of a biological catalyst?


1772) How do catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions?


1773) What would the reaction profile for a reaction in the presence of a catalyst look like compared to the same reaction without a catalyst?


1774) Are catalysts included in the equation for a chemical reaction? Give a reason for your answer.


1775) What is the relationship between catalytic action and activation energy?


1776) What is the name of the catalyst used in the extraction of aluminium oxide?


1777) How does the presence of a catalyst affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


1778) What equipment would you need to investigate the rate of a chemical reaction?


1779) What is a reversible reaction?


1780) How can reversible reactions be represented?


1781) If the reversible reaction below was heated which direction would it react? Ammonium chloride (reversible arrow) ammonia hydrogen chloride


1782) If a reversible reaction is exothermic in one direction, what is it in the opposite direction?


1783) If 3500 KJ of energy is transferred in the forward reaction, how much energy would be transferred in the reverse reaction?


1784) How can the direction of reversible reactions be changed?


1785) What would happen if the temperature was increased for the reaction below: N2(g) 3H2(g) (reversible reaction) 2NH3(g) The forward reaction is exothermic.


1786) What would happen if the temperature was decreased for the reaction below: N2(g) 3H2(g) (reversible reaction) 2NH3(g) The forward reaction is exothermic.


1787) Does increasing the temperature of a reaction favor the endothermic or exothermic reaction?


1788) What does the term equilibrium mean?


1789) How does increasing and decreasing the pressure for gaseous reactions at equilibrium?


1790) When does changing the pressure of gaseous reactions not affect the equilibrium?


1791) What does the relative amounts of all the reactants and products at equilibrium depend on?


1792) What happens when a system is at equilibrium and a change is made to the conditions?


1793) What is Le Chatelier's principle used for?


1794) How would changing the conditions of the equation below effect the equilibrium? A(g) 2B (g) (reversible arrow) C(g) D(g) a) increasing concentration of A b) increasing the pressure of the reactants c) increasing the temperature of the reaction (the forward reaction is exothermic)


1795) What happens when the concentration of one of the reactions or products in an equilibrium system is changed?


1796) What happens when the concentration of a reactant is increased in an equilibrium system?


1797) What happens when the concentration of a reactant is decreased in an equilibrium system?


1798) What would happen if the concentration of potassium chloride is increase? Cl2(g) H2O(l) (reversible arrow) Cl-(aq) ClO-(aq) 2H (aq)


1799) The Haber process is used to manufacture what substance?


1800) Write a word equation for the Haber process?


1801) Why does some of the ammonia produced through the Haber process break back down into nitrogen and hydrogen?


1802) Explain how the commercially used conditions for the Haber process are related to the availability and cost of raw materials?


1803) How is any ammonia created through the Haber process separated from any unreacted nitrogen and hydrogen?


1804) Justify why the Haber process is carried out at 200 atmospheres?


1805) Justify the use of a high temperature in the Haber process?


1806) Suggest why a catalyst is used in the Haber process?


1807) What are the raw materials required for the Haber process?


1808) What is commonly used as the source of nitrogen in the Haber process? What is commonly used as the source of hydrogen in the Haber process?


1809) What conditions are used in the Haber process?


1810) Where does crude oil come from?


1811) Is crude oil a mixture of elements, compounds or both?


1812) What is the definition of a hydrocarbon?


1813) Does crude oil contain mostly alkanes or alkenes?


1814) What are the names of the first four members of alkanes?


1815) What is the general formula for alkane molecules?


1816) Which of the following are examples of alkanes: C4H10, C2H4, C5H12?


1817) Name the alkane with: a) 1 carbon b) 2 carbons c) 3 carbons d) 4 carbons


1818) How can crude oil be separated into fractions?


1819) Why is it useful to separate crude oil into fractions?


1820) What type of fuels are produced from crude oil?


1821) What are three examples of useful materials produced by the petrochemical industry?


1822) Why is it possible to produce such a vast array of products from crude oil?


1823) How does fractional distillation separate crude oil into fractions?


1824) What factor of effects a hydrocarbons boiling point, viscosity and flammability?


1825) How does boiling point, viscosity and flammability change with increasing molecular size?


1826) What are the products of the complete combustion?


1827) What is the balanced symbol equation for the complete combustion of methane (CH4)? (include state symbols in your answer)


1828) What happens to the carbon and hydrogen atoms during combustion reactions?


1829) What is the useful outcome of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels?


1830) Describe how the each of the following properties changes as the length of hydrocarbon chains within a fraction increases: a) Boiling point b) Flammability c) Viscosity


1831) What is cracking?


1832) Describe the conditions required for catalytic cracking?


1833) How is cracking done using steam?


1834) What are the products of cracking?


1835) What is the balanced equation for the cracking of this alkane? C15H32 --> 2C2H4 C3H6 _______


1836) Why do do alkenes react with bromine water, but alkanes don't?


1837) What is the chemical test and positive result for identifying alkenes?


1838) Why is cracking of hydrocarbons so important?


1839) How are alkenes used in chemical industry?


1840) How does modern life depend on the uses of hydrocarbons?


1841) What is the structure of an alkene like?


1842) What is the general formula for the homologous series of alkenes?


1843) Why are alkene molecules called unsaturated molecules?


1844) What are the conditions for the addition of water to alkenes?


1845) What are the conditions for the addition of halogens to alkenes?


1846) What are the names of the first four members of the homologous series of alkenes?


1847) What is the structural and display formula ethene?


1848) What is the structural and display formula pentene?


1849) What is the functional group for alkenes?


1850) What determines the reactions of organic compounds?


1851) How does the combustion of alkenes differ in oxygen and in air?


1852) How do alkenes react with hydrogen, water and the halogens?


1853) What are the conditions required for the addition of hydrogen to alkenes?


1854) What are the conditions required for the addition of water to alkenes?


1855) What are the structures of the following products of alkene addition reactions: 1. dibromoethane 2. dichloroethane 3. ethanol 4. ethane


1856) What is the functional group for alochols?


1857) What are the names of the first four members of the homologous series of alcohols?


1858) What are the names and structural formula for the first four members of the homologous series of alcohols?


1859) What happens when when alochols react with sodium?


1860) Name the following alcohols from their formula: a) C2H5OH b) C3H7OH c) C6H11OH


1861) What happens when when alochol burns in air?


1862) What pH solutions are formed when alcohols are added to water?


1863) What are the main uses of alcohols?


1864) How can ethanol be produced from sugar?


1865) What are the conditions used during the fermentation of sugar to produce ethanol?


1866) What happens when alcohols react with oxidising agents?


1867) What is the functional group for carboxylic acids?


1868) What are the names of the first four members of a homologous series of carboxylic acids?


1869) What is the structure of the first four members of a homologous series of carboxylic acids?


1870) What are the names of the following carboxylic acids? 1. HCOOH 2. CH2COOH 3. C2H5COOH 4. C3H7COOH


1871) (HT only) Why are carboxylic acids weak acids in terms of ionisation and pH?


1872) What happens when carboxylic acids react with carbonates?


1873) What happens when carboxylic acids dissolve in water?


1874) What happens when carboxylic acids react with alcohols?


1875) What is a pure substance?


1876) What is a formulation?


1877) What can be used to distinguish between pure substances and mixtures?


1878) What are examples of formulations?


1879) What is a pure substance in everyday language?


1880) How are formulations made?


1881) How would you test if carbon dioxide was present In a reaction?


1882) How would you test if Hydrogen was present In a reaction?


1883) How would you test if chlorine was present In a reaction?


1884) How would you test if Oxygen was present In a reaction?


1885) What can Chromatography be used to separate?


1886) What are the names of the two phases involved in chromatography?


1887) What does seperation depend on?


1888) How should the Rf value be expressed?


1889) How is the Rf value calculated?


1890) How do the Rf values of compounds change in different solvents?


1891) How can compounds be identified?


1892) How many spots are produced by a pure compound compared to a compound in a mixture?


1893) How can paper chromatography be used to separate mixtures?


1894) How can chromatographic methods can be used for distinguishing pure substances from impure substances?


1895) How can chromatograms be used to determine R values?


1896) How can elements and compounds be detected?


1897) What are the advantages of instrumental methods compared with the chemical tests?


1898) What are the different colours produced by some metal ions (cations)?


1899) When are some flame colours masked?


1900) How do carbonates react with dilute acids?


1901) What do Halide ions produce when they react with silver nitrate solution?


1902) What do Sulfate ions in solution produce when they react with barium chloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid?


1903) What solution can be used to identify some some metal ions (cations)?


1904) What do solutions of aluminium, calcium and magnesium ions form?


1905) What happens when sodium hydroxide is added to Solutions of copper(II), iron(II) and iron(III) ions?


1906) Write a balanced equation for reactions that produce the insoluble hydroxides.


1907) What is Flame emission spectroscopy used for?


1908) What can the output of a line spectrum be used for?


1909) What is the composition of the earths atmosphere?


1910) How has the Earths atmosphere evolved?


1911) How has the Earths atmosphere evolved?


1912) What types of gases did volcanoes produce?


1913) What happened to the atmopshere when the oceans formed?


1914) What process has caused oxygen levels in our atmosphere to increase since its formation?


1915) When did Algae first produce oxygen?


1916) How did Algae and plants affect the atmosphere?


1917) Apart from through the process of photosynthesis, what else has caused carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere to decrease since its formation?


1918) How did the Earth's atmosphere change over time? Why did these changes happen?


1919) How and why did limestone, coal, crude oil and natural gas form?


1920) How does the atmosphere help the Earth maintain stable surface temperatures?


1921) What are the long and short term impacts of the greenhouse effect?


1922) What types of human activities increase the amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?


1923) What do most scientists believe will happen to the Earth?s atmosphere?


1924) What difficulties can such complex systems as global climate change cause?


1925) What is the importance of peer reviewing results and of communicating results to a wide range of audiences.


1926) What is a major cause of climate change?


1927) Describe briefly four potential effects of global climate change


1928) What are the scale, risk and environmental implications of global climate change.


1929) What is a carbon footprint?


1930) How can a carbon footprint be reduced?


1931) What actions are required to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and methane?


1932) What human activity is the biggest contributor to an increase in atmospheric pollutants?


1933) What do most fuels contain?


1934) Name the gases commonly released into the atmosphere when a fuel is burned?


1935) How does burning fuels produce carbon monoxide, soot (carbon particles), sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen?


1936) What are the impacts of emissions of carbon monoxide?


1937) What environmental impact does the emission of sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen cause?


1938) What environmental impact do particulates cause?


1939) Describe and explain the problems caused by increased amounts of the following pollutants in the atmosphere: a) Carbon Dioxide b) Nitrogen Oxides c) Sulfur Dioxide d) Particulates


1940) What do humans use the Earth's resources for?


1941) What do natural resources provide?


1942) What are finite resources used for?


1943) What role has Chemistry played in improving agricultural and industrial processes?


1944) What are the names of natural products that are supplemented or replaced by agricultural and synthetic products?


1945) What is the difference between finite and renewable resources?


1946) What are orders of magnitude?


1947) What different aspects of a products lifetime are assessed through a life cycle assessment?


1948) Why are life cycle assessment not a purely objective process?


1949) Why is it important that life cycle assessments are completed by an unbiased impartial agency?


1950) What are the life cycle assessments that would be conducted for plastic and paper carrier bags?


1951) What are the reasons behind the incentive Reduce, Reuse, Recycle?


1952) Where are the raw materials found to produce products such as ceramics, metals and plastics?


1953) Describe how the majority of energy is generated in order to process raw materials such as clay ceramics and metal ores?


1954) Evaluate the environmental impacts of quarrying in order to obtain natural resources


1955) Give an example of a product that can be reused and a product that can be recycled.


1956) How can metals be recycled?


1957) What does the amount of separation for a product rely on? Give an example.


1958) What ways can reducing the use of limited resources be achieved?


1959) What should the quality of drinking water be like?


1960) What must be done to the waste water produced by urban lifestyles and industrial processes before it can be released back into the environment?


1961) What is the name given to water that is safe to drink?


1962) What will be required to be removed from a) agricultural waste water and b)industrial waste water?


1963) What factors decide which methods are used to produce potable water?


1964) What does sewage treatment include?


1965) What stages do most of the potable water in the UK produced?


1966) How is potable water obtained from a) waste ground and b) salt water?


1967) What are three types of sterilising agents used for potable water?


1968) What process can be used to make salt water / sea water potable when fresh water is limited?


1969) How is desalination completed? (give two methods)


1970) What is the main drawback of desalination processes?


1971) What is the difference between potable and pure water?


1972) What is the differences in the way that ground water and salty water is treated?


1973) What are the reasons for each step of producing potable water from ground water?


1974) How can analysis of the purity of water be carried out?


1975) What will happen to the Earth's supplies of metal ores if we continue to extract them at the rate we are now?


1976) What are new ways of extracting copper from low-grade ores called?


1977) What do these new methods of copper extraction avoid?


1978) How is phytomining carried out?


1979) How is bioleaching carried out?


1980) How can copper compounds be processed to obtain the metal.


1981) What uses do we have for the ammonia produced through the Haber process?


1982) Recall the names of the salts produced when phosphate rock is treated with: a) nitric acid b) sulfuric acid c) phosphoric acid


1983) What process is used to extract rocks containing phosphate compounds from the earth?


1984) How can rocks containing phosphate compounds be treated, in order to make soluble salts that can be used as fertilisers?


1985) NPK fertilisers all contain which 3 elements?


1986) Can NPK fertilisers be made using a variety of raw materials and different reactions?


1987) NPK fertilisers are formulations of various salts. What is a formulation?


1988) How can corrosion be described?


1989) How can corrosion be prevented?


1990) What practical could be carried out to investigate the conditions needed for corrosion (rusting)?


1991) What conditions are needed for corrosion to occur?


1992) What does sacrificial protection mean?


1993) How is aluminium protected from further corrosion?


1994) Would a more or less reactive metal be used in sacrificial protection? Give a reason for your answer.


1995) Are most everyday metals pure or alloys?


1996) What are the alloys bronze and brass made up of?


1997) What is the percentage of gold in 24 carat and 18 carat gold used for jewellery?


1998) What elements are present in the alloy steel?


1999) How are the physical properties of high carbon and low carbon steels different?


2000) What are the benefits of stainless steels that contain chromium and nickel?


2001) What are the uses of low density aluminium alloys?


2002) What are the uses of high density steels?


2003) How is soda-glass made?


2004) How is borosilicate glass made and what is the advantage of it over soda-glass?


2005) How are clay ceramics made?


2006) What is a composite and how are they made?


2007) What are three examples of composites?


2008) What is a polymer?


2009) What factors determine the type of polymers that are made?


2010) What is the difference between thermo softening and thermosetting polymers?


2011) How are high density and low density poly(ethene) are produced from ethene?


2012) How are the structures of thermosoftening and thermosetting polymers different?


2013) Required Practical 2 - Titrations (Chemistry only) (AT Skills 1,8)


2014) What is a system?


2015) What is the law of conservation of energy?


2016) When a system changes, what happens to the way energy is stored?


2017) What is the net change in energy in a closed system? Give an example.


2018) What energy changes are involved when an object is projected upwards?


2019) What is the equation for elastic potential energy?


2020) What equation links g.p.e., height, mass and gravitational field strength?


2021) What equation is used to calculate kinetic energy of a moving object?


2022) What is the equation for gravitational potential energy gained by an object raised above ground level?


2023) In all system changes, what happens to energy?


2024) What is the equation used to calculate energy efficiency?


2025) What two ways can be used to reduce unwanted energy transfers?


2026) (HT) How is the efficiency of an intended energy transfer increased?


2027) What equation is used to calculate change in thermal energy?


2028) How much energy is needed to increase the temperature of 500 g of lead from 20oC to 45oC? The specific heat capacity of lead is 128 J/kg oC.


2029) What is meant by the term 'specific heat capacity'?


2030) What is meant by the term 'power'?


2031) How is the rate of a cooling building affected by the thickness and the thermal conductivity of it's walls?


2032) What definition is illustrated in the following example: comparing two electric motors that both lift the same weight through the same height but one does it faster than the other?


2033) What affect does a higher thermal conductivity have?on the rate of energy transfer?


2034) What are the main energy resources available for use on Earth?


2035) How is the main energy resource of fossil fuels used on Earth, compared with solar?


2036) Why are fossil and nuclear fuels more reliable than wind for generating electricity?


2037) What are the environmental issues that arise from the use of different energy resources?


2038) What is a renewable energy resource?


2039) Why has there been an increase in use of fossil fuels since the early 1900s and how does this compare with solar energy?


2040) Which of the following energy resources are renewable and which are non-renewable: fossil fuels, wind, biofuel, solar, nuclear fuel, water waves?


2041) What are the main uses of energy resources on Earth?


2042) What are the energy resources available on earth?


2043) What is the environmental impact of using fossil fuels compared with solar?


2044) How would you draw a series circuit with the following components; a bulb, voltmeter, battery and variable resistor?


2045) What provides the potential difference for an electrical charge to flow through a closed circuit?


2046) What is the definition of electric current?


2047) What is the size of an electrical current determined by?


2048) How could you draw a circuit diagram to include the following components; bulb, cell, ammeter and an LDR?


2049) How are flow of charge, current and time linked by an equation?


2050) In a single closed loop what would the value of current be?


2051) How are current, potential difference and resistance linked by an equation?


2052) What does the current through a component depend on?


2053) What is the difference in function between a resistor and a variable resistor?


2054) What are the factors affecting resistance in a wire?


2055) How would a high resistance of a component affect the current and potential difference across the component?


2056) How could you use a graph to identify if a circuit was linear or non-linear and relate the curves to their function and properties?


2057) What happens to the resistance of a filament lamp as the temperature increases?


2058) A diode will have a very high resistance in which direction?


2059) How does the current through an ohmic conductor (at a constant temperature) behave in relation to the current?


2060) How could you draw a circuit to measure the resistance of a component by measuring the current through, and potential difference across, the component? (include the equation)


2061) How does the resistance of a diode behave in relation to the current of the component?


2062) How does the current through a diode behave?


2063) How are thermistors used for? Give an example.


2064) What happens to the resistance of an LDR as light intensity increases?


2065) How are LDRs used in circuits? Oive an example.


2066) What happens to the resistance of a thermistor as the temperature increases?


2067) Why would the resistance of a semiconductor decrease?


2068) When is an electric field of a charged object weakest?


2069) When do certain insulating materials become charged?


2070) What happens to a second charged object placed in the electric field of the first charged object?


2071) How do certain insulting materials become charged in terms of electrons?


2072) What happens when two objects of the same type of charge are close together?


2073) When is an electric field of a charged object strongest?


2074) What is the relationship between force and distance between two charged objects?


2075) What happens when two objects of opposite type of charge are close together?


2076) How would you draw the electric field pattern for an isolated charged sphere?


2077) What is the charge of a material that loses the electrons?


2078) What type of force can the attraction and replulsion between two charged objects be classified as?


2079) What is an electric field?


2080) How is static electricity and/or a spark produced?


2081) What happens to the electric field of charged objects?


2082) How does a charged object exert forces of attraction and repulsion when not in contact with another object?


2083) How can the phenomena of static electricity be explained?


2084) Name the two different types of circuit that can be used to join electrical components together?


2085) What do we use dc series circuits for?


2086) What is created in the area around a charged object?


2087) Describe how: a) Current b) Potential difference c) Total resistance Varies between components connected in series.


2088) What is the current if the potential difference is 12V and the resistance is 4Ohms?


2089) Describe how: a) current b) potential difference c) total resistance varies between components connected in parallel circuits?


2090) What happens when two electically charged objects are brought close together?


2091) In what two ways can Ohms law be applied to a circuit?


2092) Why does adding resistors in series increase the total resistance, whilst adding resistors in parallel decreases the total resistance?


2093) What are the two equations used to calculate power?


2094) What is the purpose of everyday electrical appliances?


2095) What does the amount of energy an appliance transfers depend upon?


2096) How do domestic appliances transfer energy from batteries or mains to the kinetic energy of electric motors or heating devices.


2097) How is the power of a circuit device related to the potential difference across it and the current through it?


2098) When is 'work done' in terms of appliances?


2099) Which equation is use to calculate the amount of energy transferred by electrical work?


2100) In terms of charge flow and potential difference, how can energy transferred be calculated?


2101) How is the power of a circuit device related to the energy transferred over a given time?


2102) What examples show the relationship between the power ratings for domestic electrical appliances and changes in stored energy when they are in use?


2103) What type of supply is mains electricity?


2104) What is the frequency of the domestic electricity supply in the United Kingdom?


2105) What is the potential difference of the domestic electricity supply in the United Kingdom?


2106) What is the difference between direct and alternating potential difference?


2107) How many core cables do most electrical appliances use to the mains?


2108) Why is the insulation covering of each wire in a plug colour coded? What colour is the a) Live wire b) Neutral wire c) Earth wire


2109) What is carried by the live wire from the supply?


2110) What completes the circuit in a plug?


2111) What is the potential difference between live wire and earth wire?


2112) Which wire in a plug is at, or close to, earth potential (0 V)?


2113) What is the potential difference of the earth wire in a plug, and when would it carry a current?


2114) When might a live wire still be dangerous when considering a switch?


2115) What are the dangers of providing any connection between the live wire and earth?


2116) What is the purpose of the earth wire?


2117) What is the National Grid?


2118) What is used to transfer electrical power from power stations to consumers?


2119) Why are step-up transformers used in the National Grid?


2120) Why are step-down transformers used in the National Grid?


2121) Why is the National Grid system an efficient way to transfer energy?


2122) What is the equation used to define the density of a material


2123) What is meant by the term 'internal energy', in terms of particles?


2124) If the temperature of a system increases, what three different things does the increase in temperature depend on?


2125) What is meant by the term 'internal energy', in terms of kinetic and potential energy?


2126) What effect does heating change have on the energy stored within the system or state of matter?


2127) Draw a diagram pf particle arrangement for a solid; a liquid and a gas.


2128) What two things can the particle model be used to explain?


2129) In terms of particles, explain why ther are differences in density between the different states of matter.


2130) What is meant by the latent heat of a substance?


2131) What happens to the temperature when a change of state occurs?


2132) What happens to the mass of a substance as it changes state?


2133) What is the specific latent heat of a substance?


2134) How do changes of state differ from chemical changes?


2135) What is the equation used to calculate the energy for a change of state? Include units in your response.


2136) What is meant by the term specific heat of fusion? Give an example to show what this means.


2137) What is the difference between specific heat capacity and specific latent heat?


2138) What is meant by the term specific heat of fusion? Give an example to show what this means.


2139) How would the motion be described for molecules of a gas?


2140) What impact does increasing the temperature of a gas held at constant volume have on pressure?


2141) How does the temperature of a gas relate to the average kinetic energy of the molecules?


2142) How does the motion of the molecules in a gas relate to both its temperature and its pressure?


2143) What is the relationship between the temperature of a gas and its pressure at constant volume?


2144) (Physics only) What states can be fluids?


2145) (Physics only) Pressure in fluid causes a force in what direction to the surface?


2146) (Physics only) What equation can be used to calculate the pressure of a fluid at the surface?


2147) (Physics only) How can the pressure due to a column of liquid be calculated?


2148) (Physics only) What two factors increase the pressure at a point in a liquid?


2149) (Physics only) How does pressure change as you get deeper in the sea?


2150) (Physics only) How do differences in pressure create the force of upthrust?


2151) (Physics only) What factors influence whether an object floats or sinks?


2152) (Physics only) What is the atmosphere?


2153) (Physics only) What happens to the density of the atmosphere as the altitude increases?


2154) (Physics only) What creates atmospheric pressure?


2155) (Physics only) What happens to the weight of air above a surface as the height of that surface is increased above ground level?


2156) (Physics only) Why does atmospheric pressure decrease with an increase in height?


2157) (Physics only) How would the particles in the air be arranged close to the Earth's surface then getting further up with altitude.


2158) (Physics only) Why does atmospheric pressure vary with height above the surface?


2159) (Physics only) What causes a gas to be compressed or expanded?


2160) (Physics only) How does pressure affect gases?


2161) (Physics only) How does the pressure produce gas being compressed or expanded within a container?


2162) (Physics only) Using the particle model, how does increasing the volume in which as gas is contained lead to a decrease in pressure?


2163) (Physics only) What does Boyle's Law state?


2164) (Physics only) How could you calculate the change in pressure of a gas or the volume of a gas (of fixed mass and temperature)


2165) (Physics only) What is work?


2166) (Physics only) What impact does doing 'work' on a gas have on the internal energy of a gas and temperature?


2167) (Physics only) In a situation like a bicycle pump, explain how doing work on an enclosed gas can lead to an increase in temperature of the gas.


2168) (Physics only) What happens to some of the mass in nuclear fusion?


2169) Why might the scientific model of the atom change over time?


2170) What where the atoms thought to be like before the discovery of the atom?


2171) What did the discovery of the electron lead to?


2172) What did the plum pudding model suggest?


2173) What did the results from the alpha particle scattering experiment lead to?


2174) How did Niel Bohr adapt the nuclear model?


2175) What did later experiments on the atom lead to?


2176) What did the experimental work of James Chadwick provide evidence of?


2177) Describe why the new evidence from the scattering experiment led to a change in the atomic model.


2178) What is the difference between the plum pudding model of the atom and the nuclear model of the atom.


2179) What is the radius of an atom?


2180) What is the structure of an atom, with charges for sub-atomic particles?


2181) How does the radius of an atom compare with the radius of the nucleus of an atom?


2182) Where is most of the mass of an atom concentrated?


2183) How do energy levels differ in terms of distance from the nucleus?


2184) What might cause the electron arrangements to change (from a lower to higher energy level, for example)?


2185) How does the number of electrons relate to the number of protons in an atom?


2186) What is the overall electrical charge of an atom?


2187) What do all atoms of a particular element have in common? What do we call this number?


2188) What does the mass number of an atom refer to?


2189) How can atoms be represented?


2190) What is an isotope?


2191) How can an atom become a positive ion?


2192) What is an isotope?


2193) What is meant by the term 'unstable' in terms of atomic nuclei?


2194) How can a nucleus become more stable in terms of radiation?


2195) What is meant by the term 'activity' in terms of decay?


2196) What is radioactive activity measured in?


2197) What is the definition of 'count rate' and what piece of equipment can measure it?


2198) What are the different types of nuclear radiation that can be emitted and what is each made up of?


2199) What is a beta particle (β)?


2200) What is a gamma ray (γ)?


2201) What is released during nuclear fission?


2202) What will stop the alpha radiation?


2203) What will stop the Beta radiation?


2204) What will stop the Gamma radiation?


2205) Relative to alpha and beta, how ionising is gamma radiation?


2206) Relative to beta and gamma, how ionising is alpha radiation?


2207) What are the different uses of radiation?


2208) How can nuclear equations be used?


2209) What symbol represents an alpha particle?


2210) What symbol represents a beta particle?


2211) What does the emission of the different types of nuclear radiation cause?


2212) What does alpha decay cause?


2213) What does Beta decay cause?


2214) How to balance alpha (α) and beta (β) decay equations?


2215) What happens during the emission of a gamma ray?


2216) How radioactive decay happen?


2217) What is the meaning of the term 'half-life'?


2218) How is the concept of half-life related to radioactive decay?


2219) How would the half-life of a radioactive isotope be determined from given information?


2220) How would the net decline of radioactive emission after a given number of half-lives be expressed?


2221) What is meant by radioactive contamination?


2222) What is the hazard of contamination?


2223) What is Irradiation?


2224) What are the hazards associated with contamination and irradiation?


2225) What type of suitable precaution must be taken to protect against any hazard that the radioactive source used in the process of irradiation may present.


2226) When is radiation around?


2227) Where does Background radiation comes from?


2228) How could the level of background radiation be affected?


2229) How is radiation dose measured?


2230) What does 1000 millisieverts equal to?


2231) What is the unit for a radiation dose?


2232) How can nuclear radiation be used in medicine?


2233) How can nuclear radiation be used in medicine?


2234) How can nuclear radiation be used in medicine?


2235) What are the perceived risks of using nuclear radiation?


2236) What are the half-lifes of radioactive isotopes?


2237) Why does the hazard associated with radioactive material differ according to the half-life involved?


2238) What is meant by the term 'nuclear fission'?


2239) When does Spontaneous fission occur?


2240) What happens to a nucleus undergoing fission?


2241) What type of energy do all fission products have?


2242) What starts the chain reaction?


2243) How is a chain reaction controlled?


2244) How is the explosion of a nuclear weapon caused?


2245) What is nuclear fusion?


2246) What is a force?


2247) What is the difference between contact and non-contact forces?


2248) What examples are there of contact forces?


2249) What examples are there of non-contact forces?


2250) What is the interaction pair between a book being pushed across a table, where a force is produced on each object?


2251) What is meant by the term ‘vector quantity’ in terms of forces?


2252) What do all vector quantities have?


2253) How is an arrow used to represent a vector quantity?


2254) How are scalar quantities different from vector quantities?


2255) How is resultant force calculated?


2256) What is the resultant force for an aeroplane accelerating with a force of 2300 N when the reaction force of air resistance is 1900 N.


2257) What forces are acting on a car that is speeding up?


2258) What is the resultant force for an object in each of the two examples below? 1) http://bit.ly/2EF4n0D 2) http://bit.ly/2BEpgGo


2259) What happens when two component forces at right angles act together?


2260) What piece of equipment is used to measure weight?


2261) What is the relationship between the weight of an object and the mass of an object?


2262) What does gravitational field strength depend on?


2263) What is weight and what causes the force of gravity close to the Earth?


2264) What is the name of the single point of an object where the weight is considered to act?


2265) What equation is used to calculate weight? Include the SI units.


2266) What is happening when is work done on an object?


2267) When does a force do work on an object?


2268) What is one joule of work done equal to?


2269) How many joules are in 76 Nm?


2270) What equation is used to calculate work done by a force on an object? Include SI units.


2271) What is the energy transfer that occurs when work is done?


2272) When work is done against the frictional forces acting on an object what happens to the temperature of the object?


2273) What forces are involved in stretching, bending or compressing an object?


2274) Why, to change the shape of an object (by stretching, bending or compressing), does more than one force have to be applied?


2275) What is the relationship between the work done on the spring and the elastic potential energy stores?


2276) What is the difference between elastic deformation and inelastic deformation caused by stretching forces?


2277) What is the relationship between extension and force for an elastic object, such as a spring?


2278) What is the equation that links force, spring constant and extension? Include SI units.


2279) What is the difference between a linear and non-linear relationship between force and extension?


2280) What equation is used to calculate elastic potential energy?


2281) What causes an object to rotate?


2282) What examples are there in which forces cause rotation?


2283) What is the turning effect of a force called?


2284) What equation is used to calculate the moment of a force? Include SI units.


2285) When the total clockwise moment about a pivot equals the total anticlockwise moment about that pivot how are the forces described?


2286) What can be used to transmit the rotational effects of a force?


2287) How do levers and gears transmit the rotational effects of forces?


2288) What is distance a measure of?


2289) Is speed a vector or a scalar quantity and why?


2290) Is distance a vector or scalar quantity and why?


2291) Is the speed of a moving object normally constant?


2292) What is displacement a meaure of?


2293) What are the typical speeds and factors that affect the speeds of people walking, running and cycling?


2294) Is displacement a vector or scalar quantity and why?


2295) Is the speed of sound normally constant?


2296) What is the typical speed of sound in air?


2297) What is the equation used to calculate the distance travelled and what are the units involved?


2298) What is the equation used to calculate the average speed for non-uniform motion?


2299) What is velocity a measure of?


2300) How can the distance travelled by an object in a straight line be represented?


2301) Is velocity a vector or scalar quantity and why?


2302) How can the speed of an object be calculated from a distance-time graph?


2303) What are the vector - scalar pairs?


2304) (HT only) If an object is accelerating, how can the speed at a time be determined from a distance-time graph?


2305) (HT only) What is constant and what is changing during circular motion?


2306) What axis does time go on for a distance-time graph?


2307) What is the equation used to calculate the average acceleration of an object and what are the units involved?


2308) What does decelerating mean?


2309) (Physics only)


2310) How can the acceleration of an object be calculated from a velocity-time graph?


2311) What equation applies to uniform acceleration and what are the units involved?


2312) What acceration does an object falling freely under gravity, near the Earth?s surface any object have?


2313) What axis does time go on for a velocity-time graph?


2314) (HT only) How can the distance travelled be calculated from a velocity-time graph?


2315) (HT only)


2316) (HT only) For curved lines on a velocity-time graph, how can the area be measured?


2317) Why do objects falling through a fluid reach a terminal velocity?


2318) What is Newton's Third Law?


2319) What would happen to an object if the resultant force acting upon it is zero and the object is stationary?


2320) What would happen to an object if the resultant force acting upon it is zero and the object is moving?


2321) How can Newton's Third Law be applied to examples of equilibrium?


2322) What is the equation that links resultant force, mass and acceleration?


2323) If the resistive forces balance the driving force what happens to the vehicle in terms of speed?


2324) When will the velocity (speed and/or direction) of an object change?


2325) How can Newtons first law be applied to the motion of an object moving with uniform velocity and objects where the speed and/or direction changes?


2326) What is Newton's second law?


2327) What is the typical mass of a cyslist, car and lorry?


2328) what is the momentum equation and units?


2329) two model cars collide reversing into one another), the blue car has a of mass 1.2Kg and the red car has a mass of 1.4 kg they collide at speeds of 0.5m/s (blue) and 0.2m/s (red) what is the velocity of the cars after the collision?


2330) The equations F = m × a and a = ( v - u ) / t combine to give what equation?


2331) (HT only) What is the definition of inertial mass?


2332) What is conservation of momentum?


2333) In terms of rate of change of momentum, how do different examples of safety features work?


2334) What is the symbol that indicates an approximate value or approximate answer?


2335) Explain what happens to momentum in a collision?


2336) What is inertial mass a measure of?


2337) (HT only) What is the definition of inertia?


2338) What are poor vehicle conditions limited to?


2339) What is the definition of stoppong distance?


2340) What can the braking distance of a vehicle be affected by?


2341) What affect would an increased speed for a given breaking force have on stopping distance?


2342) What are adverse road conditions?


2343) Does every person have the same reaction time? Explain


2344) What is the typical value range for the reaction time of a typical person?


2345) How can a driver's reaction time be affected?


2346) (Physics only) How does the distance for a vehicle to make an emergency stop vary over a range of speeds typical for that vehicle.


2347) What else could affect a driver's ability to react?


2348) Whatwould the estimate of the distance required for road vehicles to stop in an emergency varies over a range of speeds be; 30mph, 40mph and 60mph?


2349) (Physics only)


2350) What methods could be used to measure human reaction times?


2351) When a force is applied to the brakes of a vehicle, how does the work done by the forces between the brakes affect the kinetic energy and temperature of the brakes?


2352) How could you interpret and evaluate the following results; person A had a reaction time of 3s, Person B had a reaction time of 4s and person C has a reaction time of 9s?


2353) what is the relationship between the speed of a vehicle and the braking force needed to stop the vehicle?


2354) How does increasing the braking force affect deceleration and brake heat?


2355) What are the dangers caused by large decelerations?


2356) (HT only) What is the force if the mass of a vehicle os 2000Kg and the acceleration is 12m/s/s?


2357) Name the two different types of waves.


2358) What are the ripples on a water surface examples of?


2359) What types of waves show areas of compression and rarefaction.


2360) What type of wave is a sound wave?


2361) What is the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves.


2362) Do the waves in air or the wave in the water travel?


2363) How can you describe wave motion?


2364) How can you describe wave motion?


2365) How can you describe wave motion?


2366) How can you describe wave motion?


2367) What is meant by amplitude of wave.


2368) What is meant by wavelength?


2369) What is the frequency of a wave?


2370) What does period and frequency equal to?


2371) What is wave speed?


2372) What is the equation that links the frequency, wave speed and wavelength?


2373) Identify amplitude and wavelength from given diagrams


2374) What method could be used to measure the speed of sound waves in air.


2375) What method would you use to work out the speed of ripples on a water surface?


2376) (Physics only) What affects a sound wave?


2377) (Physics Only) What type of wave has a frequency higher than the upper limit of hearing for humans?


2378) (HT and Physics Only) What evidence did study of seismic waves provide?


2379) (Physics Only) What produces Seismic waves?


2380) (Physics Only) What type of wave is a P wave?


2381) (Physics Only) What type of wave is a S wave?


2382) (Physics Only) What can S waves not travel through?


2383) (Physics Only) What do P-waves and S-waves provide evidence for?


2384) (HT and Physics Only) How can objects in deep water be detected?


2385) (Physics only) How do sound waves travel?


2386) (Physics only) What causes the sensation of sound?


2387) (Physics only) What restricts the limits of human hearing?


2388) (Physics only) What causes wave disturbances between sound waves and vibrations in solids?


2389) (Physics only)


2390) (Physics only) What is the normal range of human hearing?


2391) (Physics Only) How is the light in the visible light spectrum different?


2392) (Physics Only)What types of waves are electromagnetic?


2393) (Physics Only) What type of spectrum do Electromagnetic waves form?


2394) (Physics Only) What type of speed to electromagnetic waves travel?


2395) (Physics Only) How are the electromagnetic waves grouped?


2396) What is the order of electromagnetic waves from biggest wavelength to shortest wavelength?


2397) (Physics Only) What type of electromagnetic waves do human eyes detect?


2398) List the practical applications of electromagnetic waves.


2399) (HT only) How are radio waves produced?


2400) How can electromagnetic waves be generated?


2401) What types of waves are hazardous on human body tissue.


2402) How are gamma rays generated?


2403) What effects can Ultraviolet waves cause to the skin?


2404) What are three ways that show energy is transferred by electromagnetic waves?


2405) What effects the outcome of being exposed to radiation?


2406) What are the risks and consequences of exposure to radiation?


2407) What type of electromagnetic waves are ionising?


2408) (HT only) What type of current is produced when radiowaves are absorbed?


2409) (HT only) How can the wavelength of electromagnetic waves be varied?


2410) What units is radiation measured in?


2411) How many millisieverts are there in 1 sievert?


2412) (HT only) Why is each type of electromagnetic wave suitable for practical application?


2413) (Physics only) Do only perfect black bodies (objects) emit radiation?


2414) (HT only) (Physics only) What is happening in terms of radiation and emission when a body is at a constant temperature?


2415) (Physics only) At what temperature do all bodies (objects) emit and absorb infrared radiation?


2416) (Physics only) What is the relationship between temperature and radiation of infrared radiation?


2417) (Physics only) What colour object would be the best absorbed and emitter of radiation?


2418) (Physics only) What factors affect the intensity and wavelength distribution of emissions from a body (object)?


2419) (Physics only) What is a perfect black body (object)?


2420) (HT only) (Physics only) What happens when the temperature of a body (object) increases?


2421) (HT only) (Physics only) What factors can affect the temperature of the Earth?


2422) (HT only) (Physics only) Give an example of when the balance between incoming radiation absorbed and radiation emitted results in a constant temperature of a body (object)


2423) (HT only) (Physics only) What affect to the temperature of the Earth's atmosphere would an increase in radiation absorbed have?


2424) How are waves absorbed or transmitted?


2425) (Physics only) What is spectacular reflection?


2426) (Physics only) What is diffused reflection?


2427) Where are rays reflected from?


2428) What can the time taken for the reflections to reach a detector be used to determine?


2429) (Physics Only)How could a ray diagram to illustrate the reflection of a wave at a surface?


2430) What happens to Ultrasound waves when they meet a boundary?


2431) (Physics Only) Explain how the differences in velocity, absorption and reflection between different types of wave in solids and liquids can be used both for detection and exploration of structures which are hidden from direct observation?


2432) How should ray diagrams to illustrate the refraction, be constructed?


2433) (HT only) What is the cause of refraction?


2434) (HT only) How can refraction be explained?


2435) (Physics Only)What are the effects of reflection, transmission and absorption of waves at material interfaces?


2436) (Physics Only)What is the focal length?


2437) (Physics only) What is the equation that links image height, magnification and object height?


2438) (Physics only) What are the units for magnification?


2439) (Physics only) What is the unit for image height?


2440) (Physics Only) How can images by convex and concave lenses be represented?


2441) (Physics Only) How could you illustrate the similarities and differences between convex and concave lenses?


2442) (Physics Only) How are convex lenses represented in ray diagrams?


2443) (Physics Only) How are concave lenses represented in ray diagrams?


2444) (Physics Only) What type of images can be produced by convex lens?


2445) (Physics Only) What type of image can be produced by concave lens?


2446) (Physics Only) How does a lens form an image?


2447) (Physics Only) How is a convex lens used to focus an image?


2448) (Physics only) How do colour filters work?


2449) (Physics only) How is the colour of an opaque object determined?


2450) (Physics only) What colour is observed when all wavelengths of light are reflected equally?


2451) (Physics only) What is the difference between a transparent and translucent object?


2452) (Physics only) What happens to wavelengths of light that are not reflected by an object?


2453) (Physics only) What colour is observed if all wavelengths of light are absorbed?


2454) (Physics only) In terms of light, why does an object appears to be red and translucent?


2455) (Physics only) How can an orange light be produced using coloured filters?


2456) (Physics only) In terms of light, why does an object appear to be green and opaque?


2457) What are the poles of a magnet?


2458) What is the magnetic field?


2459) What force is always between a magnet and a magnetic material?


2460) What happens when two magnets are brought close together?


2461) What does the strength of the magnetic field depend on and where is it the strongest?


2462) What happens when two like poles are brought together?


2463) What affects the direction of the magnetic field?


2464) What happens when two unlike poles are brought together?


2465) What direction does the magnetic field line go in?


2466) What type of force are attraction and repulsion between magnetic poles examples of?


2467) What causes a magnetic compass to follow the direction of the Earth's magnetic field?


2468) What is a permanent magnet?


2469) How can a plotting compass be used to plot the magnetic field pattern of a magnet?


2470) What is an induced magnet?


2471) What force does induced magnetism always cause?


2472) Why does a compass point North?


2473) What happens to an induced magnet when it's removed from the magnetic field?


2474) How do the poles of the magnets interact?


2475) What is the difference between permanent and induced magnets


2476) What happens when a current flows through a conducting wire?


2477) What does the strength of the magnetic field depends on?


2478) How does shaping a wire into a solenoid affect strength of the magnetic field?


2479) What is the magnetic field like inside a solenoid?


2480) What is the shape of the magnetic field around a solenoid?


2481) How does adding an iron core affect the magnetic field?


2482) What is an electromagnet?


2483) Describe how the magnetic effect of a current can be demonstrated


2484) What does the magnetic field around a straight wire look like?


2485) How does a solenoid arrangement increase the magnetic effect of the current?


2486) (Physics only)


2487) (HT only) What is meant by the motor effect?


2488) What factors affect the size of the forces on the conductor?


2489) How is magnetic flux density calculated? Include SI units.


2490) What is the basis of an electric motor?


2491) How does the force on a conductor in a magnetic field causes the rotation of the coil in an electric motor?


2492) (Physics only) How do loudspeakers and headphones use the motor effect?


2493) (Physics only) How do moving coil loudspeakers and headphones work?


2494) (Physics only) How are potential differences induced across the ends of conductors?


2495) (Physics only) What is the generator effect?


2496) (Physics only) What effect does an induced current have?


2497) (Physics only) What factors affect the size of the induced potential difference or induced current?


2498) (Physics only) What are the principles of the generator effect?


2499) (Physics only) How does the generator effect generate A.C in an alternator? What factors can affect the current in an alternator?


2500) (Physics only) How does the generator effect generate D.C in an dynamo?


2501) (Physics only) What would the graph showing potential difference generated in the coil against time look like?


2502) (Physics only) What do microphones convert into variations in current in electrical


2503) (Physics only) Explain how a moving-coil microphone works?


2504) (Physics only) How does the equation linking the pds and number of turns in the two coils of a transformer link to the to the currents and the power transfer involved. Relate these to the advantages of power transmission at high potential difference.


2505) (Physics only) What is the basic structure of a transformer?


2506) (Physics only) Which metal is used for the core in transformers?


2507) (Physics only) The ratio of the potential differences across the primary and secondary coils of a transformer (Vp and Vs) depends upon the ratio of what?


2508) (Physics only) In a step-up transformer which has the greatest potential difference, primary (Vp) or secondary (Vs) coils?


2509) (Physics only) In a step-down transformer which has the greatest potential difference, primary (Vp) or secondary (Vs) coils?


2510) (Physics only) What would the relationship be between total power input and output in a transformer if it were 100% efficient?


2511) (Physics only) Vp x Ip = the ______ _______ (primary coil). power input Vs x Is = the _______ ______ (secondary coil)power output


2512) (Physics only)Explain how the effect of an alternating current induces a current in another transformer.


2513) (Physics only) How does the ratio of the potential differences across the two coils depends on the ratio of the number of turns on each?


2514) (Physics only) What calculation liks power, current and voltage?


2515) (Physics only) What is contained within our solar system?


2516) (Physics only) What are natural satellites?


2517) (Physics only) What is our solar system part of?


2518) (Physics only) How are new elements formed?


2519) (Physics only) What is a star's life cycle determined by?


2520) (Physics only) What was the sun formed from and how?


2521) (Physics only) How do the fusion reactions in a star begin?


2522) (Physics only) What do these fusion reactions lead to?


2523) (Physics only) How are all the naturally occurring elements formed?


2524) (Physics only) Which elements are produced in a supernova?


2525) (Physics only) How are elements distributed around the universe?


2526) (Physics only) What allows the planets and satellites to maintain their circular orbits?


2527) (Physics only) (HT only) What effect does gravity have on circular orbits?


2528) (Physics only) (HT only) What must happen to the radius of an orbit if the speed increases?


2529) (Physics only) What happens to the red-shift of receding galaxies and why?


2530) (Physics only) What is red-shift?


2531) (Physics only) What makes red-shift increase?


2532) (Physics only) How does red-shift support the Big Bang theory?


2533) (Physics only) What does the Big Bang theory suggest?


2534) (Physics only) What have scientists observed of distant galaxies since 1998?


2535) (Physics only) What evidence is there of an expanding universe?


2536) (Physics only) How does Red-shift provide evidence for the Big Bang model?


2537) (Physics only) What evidence is there for the Big Bang theory?


2538) (Physics only) Do we know everything about the universe? If not give examples of things we don't yet understand.


2539) How do the Big Ideas link to this topic?

a) Forces:





b) Particles:





c) Energy:





d) Cells: